Running Head: THE HISTORY OF TUBERCULOSIS (TB)
THE HISTORY OF TUBERCULOSIS (TB) 6
The History of Tuberculosis (TB)
Module 1 SLP: BHS499 Senior Capstone Project
The History of Tuberculosis (TB)
1989 saw the goal of reducing the rate of United States’ tuberculosis by 2010 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was introduced. The United States released a plan for the elimination of TB in 1989 and reassessed this strategy in 1999 intending to define the steps required for the elimination of TB (Stewart, 2018). The TB revival happened towards the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s derailed this target. The following aspects contributed to this revival:
- The initiation of the outbreak of HIV;
- High levels of immigration in countries in which tuberculosis has indeed been common;
- TB in collective situations; and transmission;
- Multi-resistant (MDR) TB growth.
These factors occurred when, over decades of funding cuts, TB control, and other efforts in public health were inadequately supported and the TB control program was deteriorating. As a result, TB control officers in the federal, state, and local governments had very little resources for TB control. The United States subsequently renewed its TB control commitment in the 1990s and mobilized new resources (Stewart, 2018). In 1993, the rising trend in new TB cases has been reversed, while the number of new TB cases has been declining until 2011. This is due to the increased funds and resources that TB programs have been able to strengthen their controls to:
- Identify citizens with tuberculosis promptly;
- Begin proper care for TB patients; and Ensure full care for patients. Since the pace for TB disease has been unparalleled, TB removal faces several major obstacles.
- TB disease in populations at high risk where identification, diagnosis, and treatment is difficult;
- The global epidemic of TB continues and grows;
- Present monitoring mechanisms restrictions and experimental experiments and therapies including successful vaccines.
Resurgence and Data of tuberculosis Trend since 1980s
In the mid-1980s, the resurgence of TB disease was characterized by years of rising cases before its peak in 1992. Counts of cases started to drop in 1993 and 2011 the cumulative number of cases of TB registered in the USA since the largest re-emergence was 19 years downwards (Figure 1.1). The number of TB cases decreased by 5 – 7% per year between 1993 and 2002. Though from 2003 to 2008 the rates tended to decrease, it was slightly slower (Shrestha and Hill, 2017). In 2009 however, the overall number of TB cases was down over 10% between 2008 and 2009, with the decrease unparalleled. There were a total of 10,528 confirmed cases of TB in 2011. This marks a 5.8% fall from 2010 (Table 1.1).
National Trend and Resurgence of Tuberculosis
Although the total number of incidents has declined since 1993, nationwide patterns continue to record cases. To detect patterns in particular states or territories, it is important to concentrate on local epidemiology. The revival of TB in the mid-1980s signaled the rise of case counts until the height of TB in 1992 for many years (Shrestha and Hill, 2017). Case levels started to drop in 1993 and 2011 the overall number of tube cases recorded since the height of the resurgence decreased 19 times in the United States. The overall number of TB cases dropped 5% – 7% annually from 1993 to 2002.
Although the trends continued to fall from 2003 to 2008, they were slightly slower. In 2009, however, the overall number of cases of TB declined by more than 10 percent from 2008 to 2009, with an unparalleled fall. A total of 10,528 cases of TB have been registered in 2011. This reflects a 5.8 percent fall compared to 2010. The risk of contracting TB disease following M infection is high for HIV-infected individuals. TB illness. TB. In the 25-44 age range, the share of HIV coinfection decreased from a peak of 29% in 1993 to 10% in 2011 among persons with TB disease (Shrestha and Hill, 2017). The HIV-coinfection ratio dropped from 15% in 1993 to 6% in 2011 at all ages. MDR TB is caused by at least isoniazid and rifampin-resistant cells, the two most potent antibiotics for TB, and is seriously concerned with public health.
US Citizens and Immigrants
The total percentage and numbers of cases of MDR TB declined both for U.S.-born and foreign-born individuals, but the reduction in U.S.-born individuals was higher. As a result, from roughly 24% of all MDR TB cases in 1993 to 83% in 2011, a proportion of all predominant MDR TB cases identified and related to international birth was boosted (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). The number of incidents of XDR TB in the U.S. does not indicate an obvious pattern over time. In a single year that met the XDR TB case description, the largest number of cases reported was 10 in 1993. In 2003 or 2009, no cases were registered. In 2010 there was one case of XDR TB, and in 2011 there were six cases.
It is promising to decreased TB cases and MDR TB, but a valuable life lesson from the earlier revival of TB. The possible epidemic is each case of TB. Health departments must be ready to identify patients who’ve had active TB disease quickly to handle them, as well as to identify and treat close associates who may have been contaminated by people with active TB disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). Identifying which classes are more likely to get contaminated with M. The TB prevention and management efforts can be strengthened by tuberculosis and health authorities.
Stewart, R.J., Tsang, C.A., Pratt, R.H. Price, S.F., & Langer, A.J. (2018). Tuberculosis – United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67, 317-323. Retrieved from LINK: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6711a2.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017, July 26). 5 things to know about TB
. Available from LINK: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wA_fObLY6GE&list=PLvrp9iOILTQbLgGgFba6x9cwBZT3GfQMV
Shrestha, S., Hill, A. N., Marks, S. M., & Dowdy, D. W. (2017 October 15). Comparing drivers and dynamics of tuberculosis in California, Florida, New York, and Texas. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 196(8), 1050-1059. Obtained from Trident Online Library
Last Updated on January 7, 2021 by Essay Pro