Genetic Technology and Reproductive Biology

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Genetic Technology, Reproductive Biology and Genetics

  1. Explain the main components of male and female reproductive system.
  2. Explain the main reproductive hormones in female and describe their role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy
  3. Compare the processes of mitosis and explain their significance.
  4. Define key terms in genetics and summarize the outcomes of simple monohybrid crosses.
  5. Predict the results of non-mendelian inheritance genetics problems.
  6. Name the main features of male and female reproductive systems and relate features to function
  7. Describe the functions of FSH, LH, progesterone and oestrone in controlling the menstrual cycle
  8. Apply knowledge to specific issues such as of hormones in fertility treatments (IVF) and use of hormones in contraceptives.
  9. Identify the different stages in the processes of mitosis from diagrams/photomicrographs
  10. Compare and contrast meiosis and explain the biological significance of the differences
  11. Describe and explain the significance of meiosis (reduction division) with reference to spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
  12. Define key terms such as dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, gene, allele, locus, phenotype, genotype.
  13. Predict the results from simple monohybrid crosses.
  14. Demonstrate use of non- mendelian inheritance mechanisms: gender; sex-linkage; incomplete/ co-dominance and multiple alleles (blood groups) in a range of contexts.

Read more about Mendelian Genetics – Introduction to Drosophila and Genetic

ACCESS HUMAN BIOLOGY DAYTIME / EVENING

HUMAN REPRODUCTION SUMMARY

1. Male reproductive system

2. Formation of gametes – spermatogenesis

3. Structure of the sperm

4. Microscopic structure of the testis (plural: testes)

5. Female reproductive system

6. Formation of the gametes: oogenesis

7. Microscopic structure of the ovary

8. Hormonal control of the female reproductive cycle (oestrus / menstrual cycle)

9. Fertilisation to implantation

10 Placenta

11 Birth and lactation

12 Use of hormones in IVF and contraception

Questions Criteria:

4.1 Name the main features of male and female reproductive systems and relate features to function.

5.1 Describe the functions of FSH, LH, progesterone and oestrogen in controlling the menstrual cycle.

5.2 Apply knowledge to specific issues such as use of hormones in infertility treatments (IVF) and use of hormones in contraceptives.

6.3 Describe and explain the significance of meiosis (reduction division) in achieving variation within species with additional reference to spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Figure 1: Summary of gamete formation (Boyle & Senior (2002)

Figure 3: Male reproductive system

Figure 3: Section through a testis and process of spermatogenesis (Boyle & Senior (2002)

Figure 4

Female reproductive system

 

ovary pictureFigure 5 Structure of the ovary

oogenesis diagram

diagram of meiosis in oogenesis.

 

Table 1: Events that occur during one oestrous cycle in which pregnancy does not occur. The arrows in the table show the sequence of these events (Baker & Rowland 2004)

 

Stage Hormonal Secretion Events in the ovary Events in endometrium
Follicular stage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ovulation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Luteal Stage

FSH is released an stimulates the follicle

 

 

The cells in the outer region of the mature follicle secrete oestrogen

 

 

 

 

 

Once it reaches a particular concentration in the blood, oestrogen inhibits further secretion of FSH and stimulates the secretion and storage of LH by the pituitary

 

A surge occurs in the blood concentration of LH as stored LH is released by the pituitary

 

 

 

 

Cells in the corpus luteum secrete oestrogen and progesterone.

 

High concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone inhibit further release of LH and FSH

One or more follicles start to mature

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An oocyte is released from one or more mature follicles

 

The empty follicle becomes a corpus luteum

 

 

 

 

 

 

Without LH and FSH the corpus luteum degenerates and stops the production of oestrogen and progesterone.

 

 

 

 

Oestrogen stimulates an increase in the thickness of the endometrium and stimulates the development of more blood vessels.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Progesterone stimulates the endometrium to:

· Grow thicker

· Produce more blood vessels

· Develop glands that secrete a nutritive fluid

See also  BIOLOGY 100 Exam 2

 

oestrogen

Figure 5:

Reproductive hormones

(http://www.sportsmd.com/SportsMD_Articles/id/309/n/birth_control_and_the_female_athlete.aspx#sthash.eOd9XZ7j.dpbs)

Write yourself a paragraph here about how the 4 hormones link together to cause the events in the ovary and the uterus (assuming no pregnancy)

http://images.flatworldknowledge.com/tye/tye-fig11_003.jpg

Fig 7:

Fallopian tube and uterus following fertilization

)

Complete: Use of hormones in infertility treatments (IVF) and use of hormones in contraceptives.

Contraception IVF
What hormones are used typically? What are the main hormonal causes of infertility in women?

1.

 

2.

How do they work in terms of preventing ovulation and fertilisation? How can hormones be used to treat these forms of infertility?

1

 

2

 

Reproduction

Male Reproductive system

Objectives

To recap the main stages of meiosis and to recall their importance in terms of gamete formation and variation.

To name key parts of male reproductive structures

To describe their key functions

To relate structure to functions.

To identify structures from microscope slides.

A

B

C

D

E

F

Put the diagrams in order of events in meiosis

Name the different stages of meiosis

When finished, check with your partner

A

B

C

D

Describe the two important processes that you can see in this picture using your miniwhite board

Check with your partner as to the wording and how it can be improved

Extension question:

Name A – D

4.1 Name the main features of male and female reproductive systems and relate features to function.

Structure of male reproductive system

2

3

15

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

10

11

12

15

2

4

7

10

8

12

13

14

9

6.3 Describe and explain the significance of meiosis (reduction division) in achieving variation within species with additional reference to spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Spermatogenesis

Continues from puberty to old age

Stages:

Multiplication: mitosis

Growth: primary spermatocytes

Maturation: meiosis

2n

2n

2n

n

n

Animation

Female Reproductive System and Oogenesis: use booklet from previous lesson and blue sheet on process of meiosis

Objectives

Review the process of meiosis

Be able to describe the structures and functions of the female reproductive system.

Be able to understand the process of oogenesis and compare with spermatogenesis

Be able to recognize different components of the ovary from slides.

1: oviduct / fallopian tube

10: ovary

1a: fimbriae

6:vagina

6a vulva

9: uterus

9a cervix

Reminder: could get front or side view in exam. Must be able to label, and also describe some adaptations of system.

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1

10

1a

2

3

4

5

5a

6a

9

9a

8

6

7

Fallopian tube: where fertilization takes place; has cilia for moving egg; 1a fimbriae used to catch egg when released

Bladder

Pelvic bone

4 urethra

Don’t worry about or 5a

Vulva

6a vagina: acidic conditions here neutralized by alkaline sperm; smooth muscle

7 anus

8 anus

9a cervix

9 uterus or endometrial lining

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Shows ovaries attached by ligaments. Don’t necessarily release an egg each month, just depends on how developed they are.

See also  Relation between muscles, ATP energy, and the calcium ion

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Picture of the Ovary

Picture of the Ovary

Summary of Differences between oogenesis and spermatogenesis: LEARN IT

Oogenesis

Only some cells that undergo multiplication will form oocytes the rest degenerate.

Amount of growth is greater.

First stage of meiosis completed before birth (stops at prophase 1)

Unequal divisions during meiosis results in polar bodies

Second division of meiosis will not finish until after fertilization (stops at metaphase II)

Spermatogenesis

All cells that undergo multiplication will form spermatocytes.

Amount of growth is less.

Both divisions of meiosis are completed after birth

Equal divisions at meiosis so no polar bodies.

Both stages completed from puberty

process of oogenesis: oocyte development in ovary

View the slides using microscopes

ovary of monkey – simulation of microscope

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Primary follicle

Mature (Graafian) follicle

Secondary

follicle

Recap process of meiosis first, highlighting need for genetic variation (crossing over in prophase 1 and independent assortment in metaphase 1).

Check they understand that when making eggs, only one becomes the primary follicle, the rest could either not develop or form polar bodies.

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35

oogenesis related to meiosis

Warning: graphic photos

Ovulation

Ovarian Cysts

Uterus

Cyst : 6 – 7 cm

Probe

Ovary

Fallopian tube

Endometriosis

Acute or chronic: cause is non specific infection.

Growth of endometrial tissues outside uterus, most commonly in ovaries, uterine tubes and other pelvic structures.

Tissue is responsive to hormone fluctuations so will bleed during cycle, into lower abdomen, causing ‘chocolate cysts.

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note the round structure projecting into the pelvic cavity, which is the folly catheter balloon within the bladder

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Objectives

Review the process of meiosis

Be able to describe the structures and functions of the female reproductive system.

Be able to understand the process of oogenesis and compare with spermatogenesis

Be able to recognize different components of the ovary from slides.

Break

Hormones that control fertility

Objectives

To describe the events of the oestrous cycle.

Name the key hormones and their main actions on the uterus and ovary.

Comparison of oogenesis and spermatogenesis

The Menstrual Cycle

This is when the lining of the uterus builds up and breaks down.

This is a cycle and is repeated roughly every 28 days.

This occurs from puberty to menopause.

NB you might get questions referring to the oestrus cycle – this is the same hormones but in other mammals, like cows, pigs and sheep

Oestrous relates to a cycle using the same hormones but refers to other mammals, like a cow, pig, sheep etc.

You may get asked questions relating to other mammals, principles are the same but the cycle might be a different length.

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Three functions

Maturation of the egg

Release of the egg so it can be fertilized

Development of a suitable environment for growth of the zygote (embryo)

FSH (1)

Oestrogen (2)

3

4

Video clip of ovulation

Animation of growth of follicles and ovulation

animation 2

Multiple choice Quiz

Preparation for exam

Write yourself a paragraph on how all the hormones work (you can do this in your booklet under fig 5)

where they are made specifically

What effects they have on the ovary and the uterine wall (endometrium)

What effect they have on other hormones

Use other materials (e.g. video clips) to add to your class notes to learn material at a higher standard

Get it checked so that you are learning the right thing.

In the exam you might have to write a paragraph or interpret a graph

See also  Estimating Risk and Return

Controlling Reproduction in Humans

Treating Infertility

&

Avoiding Pregnancy

Objectives

Recap the function of the main hormones

Describe the hormones involved

Evaluate the effect they have on the process of ovulation

Review

In pairs discuss different forms of contraception, how they work, how effective they are; pros and cons

Link to different forms of contraception – downloads

Divided into

1) Methods with user failure

2) methods with no user failure

Contraceptive Pill

First introduced in 1951

Prevents ovulation

Used correctly over 99 % effective

Combined pill

Oestrogen and progesterone

Prevents release of both LH and FSH

Follicles do not develop in ovary each month

Ovulation does not occur

Pill taken daily for 21 days then

During 7 pill free days uterus lining breaks down

Mini Pill

Progesterone only

Mucus in cervix region thickens

Limits thickness of endometrium making it more difficult for implantation

Not very reliable at inhibiting ovulation

Treating Infertility

Affects 1 in 8 couples

It is a hormonal issue in 20 % of women who fail to conceive

To check female is ovulating which hormone would you check for?

Progesterone: this is released by corpus luteum.

Dept of Statistics: infertility in women

Type Tubal disease Ovulatory disorder Endome-triosis Uter-ine Multiple female factors Male factor Multiple female & male factors Un-explained Other
IVF 3653 1970 1213 * 1031 2294 799 7970 8
ICSI 1171 910 474 * 326 12295 2852 4368 *

 

Table 1: Percentage of couples seeking standard IVF or ICSI treatment by the reason they sought treatment (where a reason is recorded), 2011 ICSI: intracytoplasmic sperm injection

If number is less than 5 it is obscured due to patient confidentiality.

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Treatment: Learn this!

Problem: Either produce too much oestrogen or too little FSH.

So: Synthetic anti oestrogen drug (e.g. Clomiphene)

Stimulates FSH and LH so removing inhibition by oestrogen.

Or given FSH / LH directly. More expensive as need to be purified from urine of postmenopausal women or produced by recombinant micro-organisms.

Check understanding

Look over exam questions on hormones

Read over relevant sections in Anatomy and Physiology textbooks and attempt questions.

Questions etc

Fill in the labels

Highlight which structure is responsible for producing sperm

Extension:

How is the male reproductive system adapted for producing and transferring sperm?

Testis

Cowper’s gland

A

B

C …

Useful to use for revision purposes later on

Fill in the labels

Highlight which structure is responsible for producing sperm

Extension:

How is the male reproductive system adapted for producing and transferring sperm?

Testis

Cowper’s gland

A

B

C …

Seminal vesicle

bladder

prostate

Vas deferens

urethra

penis

rectum

epididymis

testis

scrotum

prostate

See the notes sections for extra guidance for exam

Notes:

Producing: you should mention information on the scrotal sac, housing testes at lower temp to increase motility of sperm; use of glands (research each one separately) to produce semen containing mucus for lubrication, prostaglandins for peristalsis in female, fructose for energy, alkaline fluid to neutralize acidity in vagina.

Transferring: smooth muscle in vas deferens; blood and muscle in penis to make it erectile

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Label A, B, D, G, E, F What letter represents where fertilization takes place?

Useful to use for revision purposes later on

Answers Label A, B, D, G, E, F What letter represents where fertilization takes place?

See the notes section for answers

Ovary

Fallopian tube

Uterus

Endometrium

Cervix

Vagina

Watch spelling. B is where fertilization takes place (not fallopian tube – read the Q!)

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Last Updated on May 27, 2021 by EssayPro