Theoretical Foundations in Nursing Final Exam

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Answer all the questions:

First Question: Essay 1 Point for Each Level of Proficiency (Total 5 Marks).

Read the article entitled, ‘From Novice to Expert’ by Patricia Benner found in

Then summarize the theory.


1- Make a COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY of this theory in YOUR OWN WORDS. Focus on the five levels of proficiency from novice to expert.

2- Your comprehensive summary should range between 500 to 1,000 words.

3- No copy and pasting of sentences from the article. Paraphrase the sentences you will include in your comprehensive summary.


Second Question: Making a Theory Evaluation -1 Point for Each item (Total 5 Marks).

Fawcett’s framework for conceptual models separates questions for analysis from those intended for evaluation. For the evaluation, she proposed evaluation (judgment based on criteria) of the origins of the model, the degree of comprehensiveness of content, the logical congruence of its internal structure, the ability of the model to generate and test theories, the degree to which it is credible as demonstrated in its social utility (use, implementation), social congruency, and significance to society.

Read Chapter 10 A Model for Evaluation of Theories: Description, Analysis, critique, testing and Support from the e-book Theoretical Nursing Development and Progress 5th Edition, By Afaf Meleis. Then, MAKE COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION of THE SISTER CALLISTA ROY’S ADAPTATION MODEL Using the Fawcett’s Criteria of Nursing Models Evaluation, which includes:

  • Origins
  • Content
  • Logical congruency
  • Generation
  • Credibility

Instructions: Make your evaluation of the Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model using a Fawcett’s criteria of Nursing Models Evaluation.

Third Question: Making a Theory Critique (Total 10 Marks).

Read Chapter 4: Florence Nightingale’s Legacy of Caring and Its Applications from the e-book Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice, Fourth Edition by Marlaine Smith and Marilyn Parker. Then Make a COMPREHENSIVE CRITIQUE of FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE’s ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY.

Instructions: Make a COMPREHENSIVE CRITIQUE of FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE’s ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY by combining inputs from at least two (2) critique articles from the internet and your own viewpoint based on the following criteria and units of analysis:

(1) Relationship between structure and function (1.1) Clarity
(1.2) Consistency
(1.3) Simplicity/Complexity
(1.4) Tautology/Teleology
(2) Diagram of the Theory (2.1) Visual and Graphic Presentation
(2.2) Logical Representation
(2.3) Clarity
(3) Circle of Contagiousness (3.1) Graphical origin of theory and geographical spread
(3.2) Influence of theorist versus theory
(4) Usefulness (4.1) Practice
(4.2) Research
(4.3) Education
(4.4) Administration
(5) External Components of Theory (5.1) Personal Values
(5.2) Congruence with other Professional Values
(5.3) Congruence with Social Values
(5.4) Social Significance


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