Septic Shock



Explain the connection of septic shock to ineffective breathing patterns and infection.
Identify common complications that may occur with alteration or treatment modalities. and conclude with patients prognosis.

Concept Mapping Guidelines



Concept mapping is a technique that allows nursing students to understand the relationship between ideas by creating a visual map of the connections. Serves as a teaching / learning strategy to organize information and visually demonstrate relationship between data. It promotes critical thinking, clinical reasoning and strengthening care planning skills.

Teaching and Evaluating with Concept Maps

Concept mapping is very useful in student preparation for clinical experiences. When used for the assessment and care of a patient with multiple health problems, data gathered allows the student to create a concept map from the data collected. A common way to begin, a concept map is to center the “reason for seeking care” or medical diagnosis on a large blank paper. Assessment data are arranged and linked to the center concept according to how the student thinks they fit best. As concepts or data are added, links and relationships become evident and may change.

The concept map enables students to synthesize relevant data such as diagnoses, signs and symptoms, health needs, learning needs, nursing interventions, and assessments. Analysis of the data begins with the recognition of the interrelatedness of the concepts and a holistic view of the patient’s health status as well as those concepts that affect the individual such as culture, ethnicity, and psychosocial state.

Once the preliminary concept map is complete, answering additional questions enable the student and instructor to make connections between concepts and begin formulating judgments and decisions. Once complete, the student and the instructor see all components simultaneously, providing a deeper and more complete understanding of the patient’s total needs. Development of the concept map forces the student to act upon previous knowledge, connect it with new knowledge, and apply it. It requires the student to have a mental grasp of the situation, rather than relying on rote memory. Review of the map with the student gives the instructor an opportunity to evaluate the student’s thinking and an opportunity for immediate feedback on discrepancies.







  • The student will strengthen their clinical reasoning skills
  • The student will strengthen their critically thinkingskills through assessing normal and abnormal assessments
  • The student will develop a plan of care on a specific patient / diagnosis



Guidelines / Grading

  • The concept map must be readable and clear to understand
  • Pertinent to medical and nursing diagnoses.
  • Patient’s problems must be listed and prioritized.
  • List supporting data, assessments, diagnostic studies and medications



Steps to concept Mapping

  • Instructors and students work together in a joint effort to promote each student’s uniqueness.
  • Develop a basic diagram
    • Begin with collected patient information
    • What led them to seek medical attention
    • Create a problem list
      • Examples:
        • Can’t breathe well, getting worse
        • Coughing productively, clear mucus
        • Temperature 100 F / oral
      • Admitting diagnosis
    • Analyze then categorize collected data
      • Determine what is abnormal
        • Assessment
        • Labs
        • Diagnostics
        • Medications
        • Past medical history
        • Labs / Diagnostic studies
        • Medications
        • Physical assessment
      • Label nursing diagnosis and link the data
        • Nursing diagnosis is formulated for each problem listed
        • Prioritize nursing diagnosis
        • Link diagnosis to data
      • Evaluate patient responses
        • Enables the nurse to determine if interventions were effective or not effective
        • Assess if patient’s goals were met or not met

Important information in a concept map

  • Assessment Data
  • Pathophysiology and etiology
  • Medical diagnosis and definition
  • History and physical
  • Medications
  • Labs
  • Nursing problems / diagnosis / outcomes (goals) / interventions / evaluations
  • Creativity
  • Layout
  • Map is presented in a professional and organized manner
  • Evidence of understanding concepts
  • Ability to answer questions


  • During post conference students will spend 15 – 20 minutes verbally describing their “Concept Map” and “In a Page”.
  • Explain their reasoning for the organization structure and connections
  • Evaluating progression of concept mapping
    • Does each map improve upon the previous one?
    • Does each map become more thorough?
    • Is creativity evident in the concept map?
    • Is the student showing relationships among concepts?
    • Are the relationships valid?
    • Is all information complete and correct?
      • Are all components of the nursing process present?
      • Is the assessment data complete?
      • Is the patient data grouped correctly to validate the nursing diagnosis?
      • Are the side effects of medications connected to signs and symptoms or laboratory values?
      • Are the abnormal laboratory values connected to a disease process or medications?
      • Are goals supported and linked to nursing interventions?
      • Are the nursing interventions specific, accurate and supported by rationales?
      • Was the student able to evaluate the effectiveness of care?
      • Is there a teaching component included?

















Last Updated on February 3, 2018

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