“Critically evaluate the empirical value of tracking the eyes in order to study a condition or specific area of psychology of your choice.”
Eye-tracking in Autism Diagnose
Rationale of the study:Ami Klin’sYouTube videos
It is always believed that autism takes place later in life, however it is there since beginning of the life. Infants first learn to take the caregivers’ attention to get what they want. They also able to follow people gazes, because, they know whatever people are looking at is what they are thinking about. Finally, they learn attitudes and body languages to develop meanings, those are meanings that are acquired as part of their shared experiences with others. However, for ASD, the line of division in terms of attention and attraction is not so clear (Klin, 2000; Reineke, 2009). (pharaphrese this paragraph).
To develop effective intervention/prevention methodsto discover the spectrum, we need to understand, ASD individuals’ inner world; which activities or objects they engage, what things are important to them and how they perceive the world. Accordingly, some technologies have been building by researchers to see the world from people with ASD’s eyes. For example; Eye-tracking technology allows us to see what new-borns, babies, children and people are engaging with in every moment(Falck-Ytter, Bölte, & Gredeback, 2013).
This paper will emphasize on, critical evaluation of eye-tracking method for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnose. Eye-tracking and ASD relation will be discussed based on validity-reliability, strength- weaknesses and research findings.
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?
“Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex disorder which refers to a group of neurodevelopment disorders involving impairments in social communication and interaction, as well as the presence of repetitive or stereotyped behaviours”, (Durkin, et al., 2017). It’s called spectrum and complex because, there are some people with severe intellectual deficit, but there are some people with special abilities. Also, it hasstrong genetic component of all developmental disorders and begins much prior to the time that the child is born. Since ASD has multiple causes, we need to be focus on first 2 year of development because some liabilities may not be directly causing the autism, yet autism may create itself (Klin, Shultz, & Jones, 2015).
What is eye-tracking? Lit review:
1) Empirical value of eye tracking:
2) How valid and reliable the eye-tracking is:
3) Comparing and contrasting eye tracking with one other psychological technique:
4) Strengths and weaknesses of eye-tracking:
5) Research findings of eye-tracking:
6) What explanations have the authors suggested?
7) Are there any alternatives to eye-tracking?
Eye-movements and Autism Relation:
Look at the The Oxford handbook of eye movements for (a,b,c,d) chapter 39,and additional lit review for (a,b,c,d) :
- the main theories of autism?
- Eye-movements and basic oculomotor control in autism?
- Eye-movements perceptual processing of more complex stimuli in autism?
- Eye movements and social processing in autism?
Earlier Autism Spectrum diagnosesmethods (lit review) ?
Autism Diagnose by Eye-tracking, the process:
Eye-tracking method succeeded to obtain Autism symptoms in 6 months infants:
Ami Klin and Warren Jones had developed a measure which is compound by attentional funnel and frames. They first tracked the typical 2 years old child’s eyes and then they tracked 2-year-old child with autism by watching them a video. While the typical child focusing on little fight scene in the video, child with autism focused on door opening and closing in the same scene. Then they decided to develop a growth chart for eye fixation (percent of focusing on people’s eyes) ,2,3,4,5,6 and 9 months until age of 24 months. Typical children most focused on people’s eyes initial times, by the time it remains stable. However, for babies with autism, it starts up high and mild orientation with people but no traction, then there is a free fall. Then researchers used data to look 6 months infants, and concluded that 2 groups (typical child and child with autism’s) eyes fixation can be easily separated. Accordingly, that measure and other similar measures can be key to identify autism condition early. Compare to before, we don’t have to wait 2 years anymore for specific autism behaviours to emerge for diagnose.
Additional researches to support eye-tracking and autism success in infants (lit review):