Observational research

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PSY 220 – EXAM 1


1. “You can observe a lot by watching” is a simple but appropriate description of the role of observation in psychology. Who gave us this sage advice?
A) B. F. Skinner, the founder of operant conditioning
B) Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalytic theory
C) Albert Bandura, developer of social learning theory
D) Yogi Berra, a Hall of Fame baseball player


2. Dr. North is famous for conducting social interaction studies within her simulated barroom environment. In these studies, she has noticed one particular group of sorority girls who seem to embody the hard partying stereotype that is often assigned to this demographic. Dr. North decides to conduct an in-depth analysis of this group of young women in order to learn more about their lives. Which of the terms BEST describes this type of study?
A) clinical study
B) interview study
C) case study
D) content analysis


3. Which of these could be classified as a case study?
A) Dr. Ginsburg passively observes children’s behavior at the zoo.
B) Dr. Ogletree conducts an in-depth analysis of one psychology student.
C) Dr. Freeman publishes an observational study of a group of mating chimpanzees.
D) Dr. Graham and her colleagues conduct a qualitative study of elementary school students’ cafeteria preferences.


4. Dr. West conducted a 5-year, in-depth analysis of one small town in rural western Oklahoma. Which of the terms BEST describes this work?
A) case study
B) longitudinal study
C) quantitative study
D) mixed-methods study


5. An in-depth analysis of an individual, social unit, or event is called a(n):
A) case study.
B) observational study.
C) naturalistic observation.
D) quantitative study.


6. Dr. Thompson published an in-depth analysis of an interesting married couple. Which of the terms BEST describes this work?
A) case study
B) longitudinal study
C) quantitative study
D) mixed-methods study


7. Which of these is NOT part of a social unit?
A) family
B) sports team
C) business organization
D) a school building


8. Which of these characteristics is a strength of the case study approach?
A) manipulation of variables
B) variety of data collection techniques
C) observer bias
D) determines cause and effect


9. The examination of specific brain structures and their functions originated as a(n):
A) case study.
B) correlational study.
C) experimental design.
D) survey study.


10. Which of these is NOT a purpose of the case study?
A) They can provide insight into the possible causes of behavior.
B) They can lead to hypotheses that are tested using other research methods.
C) They can test hypotheses and provide evidence that supports or contradicts a theory.
D) They can provide support for the internal validity of findings obtained in other research methods.


11. Which specialty is likely to make use of the single-case study method?
A) ergonomics
B) cognitive psychology
C) educational psychology
D) clinical psychology


12. A researcher who wants to gain a holistic understanding of behavior through nonstatistical means primarily is likely interested in using which research approach?
A) qualitative
B) mixed-methods
C) psychoanalysis
D) nomothetic


13. Which of these is an approach that researchers use when conducting a case study?
A) intrinsic
B) collective
C) experimental
D) quantitative


14. A(n) _____ case study is conducted to examine an individual case in depth, within its real-life context.
A) qualitative
B) mixed-methods
C) experimental
D) quantitative


15. A(n) _____ case study is where researchers rely primarily on numerical assessments and analysis to describe and understand a case.
A) qualitative
B) mixed-methods
C) experimental
D) quantitative


1. What is the theory of cognitive dissonance? What role did observational studies play in the development of this theory?


2. What are the advantages and the disadvantages of the case study as a research method?


3. What is a structured observation? Give an example of a topic that might be studied with this method and explain why this would be a good method to use for the selected topic.


4. Define ethnography. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.


5. Imagine that you want to conduct a case study on Alzheimer’s disease. How would you conduct a qualitative case study? How would you conduct a quantitative case study? What will each method tell you and what are the pros and cons of each?


PSY 220 – QUIZ 2

1. What can a researcher do in order to reduce the problem of observer bias? What research methods are subject to observer bias?


2 Differentiate disguised and undisguised naturalistic observation. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?


3. Psychologist Robert Stake identified three types of case studies based on the study’s purpose and number of cases examined. Explain what these are and provide an example of each.


4. Give two concrete examples of physical trace measures and what they might assess. Give two examples of archival records and what they would assess.


5. What are some of the guidelines that a researcher should use in designing a behavioral coding system and ensuring that when it is used it yields highly reliable results?


Last Updated on April 14, 2021 by EssayPro