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Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals

GEOG 102 Human Geography

Lab – Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals

(46 marks)

More readings: Geography Quiz, World Geography

Learning Outcomes:

  • Understand the meaning and the indicators used to measure the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
  • Knowledge of various resources and data from international organizations
  • Identify and evaluate the progress of development in one or more of the developing countries

This lab can be done individually or in a small group of 2 students. All group members will receive the same grade. A different grouping must be formed from other labs.

In September 2000 the world leaders made a pledge to achieve the following MDGs by 2015.

  1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  2. Achieve universal primary education
  3. Promote gender equality and empower women
  4. Reduce child mortality
  5. Improve maternal health
  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
  7. Ensure environmental sustainability
  8. Develop a global partnership for development

Evaluate the progress of one of the developing countries (a sub-Saharan African country recommended – see list below) in achieving one of the above MDGs by focusing on one of the specific targets.

Details of the MDGs and SDGs can be found in the following sources.

UNDP. The Sustainable Development Goals are Coming to Life.


United Nations MDG Statistical Annex 2015. (regional level data in pdf file)

  • MDG Progress reports 
  • United Nations. Millennium Development Goals Report 2015.  

List of Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

AngolaBeninBotswanaBurkina FasoBurundi
CameroonCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadComoros
CongoCongo, Dem. Rep. Of theCôte d’IvoireDjiboutiEquatorial Guinea
NamibiaNigerNigeriaRwandaSão Tomé and Principe
SenegalSeychellesSierra LeoneSouth AfricaSouth Sudan

Countries in bold are those who published their MDG reports in French or Portuguese only.

GEOG 102 Lab – MDGs and SDGs (46 marks)

Name: Student # Section:

Note: Students are not permitted to use the same set of data to complete this lab unless they belong to the same group. Use the most recent data whenever available. You are not permitted to use the same information previously submitted by yourself or other students.

Part A.

MDG Pattern

(18 marks). Fill in the blanks with question marks (?).

  1. Name of country selected: ?

(Note: Choose a country that published its MDGs report in English if you do not read French or Portuguese)

  1. MDG and Target selected:

MDG (include its # and title): ? ?

Target (include # and title): ? ?

  1. Progress of Selected Country

Use data from two MDG indicators to identify the progress under the same target in your selected country. The indicators are useful to help us to understand the extent of progress of the MDG in your selected country. Data are available from (Note: select only data identified by  as these are the official MDG indicators).

  1. Indicator 1 (identify below the full details of the indicator selected including its measurements)
Indicator 1Base Year (1990 or earliest available)Used data for 2015 or most recently availableChanges from base to current year*
Indicator # : ?Year of data: ?Year of data: ?in %
Full description of indicator: ????

* Calculate the percentage change by using the following formula.

Percent Change = (Value of Current Year – Value of Base Year)/Value of Base Year X 100%

  1. Indicator 2 (identify below the full details of the second indicator under the same target)
Indicator 2Base Year (1990 or earliest available)Use data for 2015 or most recently availableChanges
Indicator #: ?Year: ?Year: ?in %
Full description of indicator: ????
  1. Regional pattern. To understand the extent of the progress of your selected country, it is useful to compare with the regional average (i.e. the average of all countries in the same region). Identify your selected region (e.g. Sub-Sahara Africa, South America, etc.) to compare (name of region) ?

Note: using another country to compare is not recommended.

Data on world regions are available from:

  • United Nations MDG Statistical Annex 2015.

  1. Indicator 1 (use the same indicator as in your selected country)
Base Year (1990 or earliest available)Current Year (or most recently available data )Changes
Indicator 1 – MDG indicator #: ?Year: ?Year: ?in %
  1. Indicator 2 (use the same indicator in your selected country)
Base Year (1990 or earliest available)Current Year (or most recently available data )Changes
Indicator 2 – MDG indicator #: ?Year: ?Year: ?in %

Part B.

Analysis of MDGs and SDGs

(28 marks). Answer the following questions for this part.

Review progress reports on your country to analyze its policies and achievements. . Please note that not all progress reports are available in English. You may need to consult its progress reports from different years to get the details.

  1. Identify two major measures or policies that have been undertaken to achieve the MDG/target in your selected country (included the name of the program and/or year of implementation). Briefly noted how they impact on the MDG you focused on.
  2. Based on the data in Part A, to what extent is your selected country’s performance better or worse than the regional average? Can you explain why?
  3. Was the target or MDG identified in your selected country achieved by 2015 and explain why?
  4. Outline two major factors contributed to its success orfailure in achieving the MDG (including its policies, implementation, and effectiveness).
  5. Based on the recent adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development by the U.N. in September 2015, is your millennium target/goal will continue to be supported? Under which SDG(s) will it be continued? What are the main objectives under the new SDG(s)? [Information on SDGs are available from UN.]
  6. Are you optimistic that the unfinished MDGs will be achieved? Explain why and what progress has been made since 2015?
  7. To what extent and in what ways the COVID-19 pandemic has or will impact on the SDGs in your selected country?

[Situation reports on COVID-19 pandemic in Africa are available from WHO:]

Last Updated on January 24, 2021

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