Microbiology

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Part ​ ​1:


Fresh ​ ​out ​ ​of ​ ​college ​ ​with ​ ​your ​ ​degree ​ ​in ​ ​Microbiology, ​ ​you​ ​have ​ ​landed ​ ​your ​ ​‘first ​ ​real ​ ​job’ ​ ​as ​ ​a
scientist
​ ​with ​ ​“DuPunt”, ​ ​a ​ ​company ​ ​that ​ ​specializes ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​development ​ ​and ​ ​production ​ ​of
polyurethane
​ ​derivatives ​ ​(specialized ​ ​‘plastics’). ​ ​​ ​Dupunt ​ ​worked ​ ​with ​ ​NASA ​ ​to ​ ​design ​ ​the
sample
​ ​return ​ ​vehicle ​ ​(SRV) ​ ​that ​ ​was ​ ​responsible ​ ​for ​ ​the ​ ​return ​ ​of ​ ​Martian ​ ​soil ​ ​samples,
described
​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​journal ​ ​article ​ ​by​ ​Kenneth ​ ​Nealson ​ ​(Ann ​ ​N ​ ​Y ​ ​Acad ​ ​Sci. ​ ​2001​ ​950:241-58).
The
​ ​DuPunt ​ ​CEO ​ ​was ​ ​very ​ ​interested ​ ​to ​ ​have ​ ​her ​ ​company ​ ​support ​ ​the ​ ​NASA ​ ​mission ​ ​to ​ ​find
life
​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​universe. ​ ​She ​ ​also ​ ​realized ​ ​that ​ ​participation ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​mission ​ ​offered ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​Company
an
​ ​uique, ​ ​high ​ ​profile ​ ​business ​ ​opportunity. ​ ​​ ​He ​ ​convinced ​ ​NASA ​ ​to ​ ​showcase ​ ​a ​ ​new
polyurethane
​ ​protective ​ ​coating ​ ​on​ ​the ​ ​robot ​ ​carried ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​SRV. ​ ​His ​ ​idea ​ ​was ​ ​to ​ ​dress ​ ​the ​ ​robot
like
​ ​the ​ ​singer ​ ​Elvis ​ ​Presley ​ ​and ​ ​bring ​ ​wide ​ ​attention ​ ​to ​ ​the ​ ​Mars ​ ​mission. ​ ​As ​ ​part ​ ​of​ ​this ​ ​public
relations
​ ​campaign, ​ ​he ​ ​has ​ ​named ​ ​the ​ ​robot ​ ​​ ​“ELVIS” ​ ​(Extraterrestrial ​ ​landing ​ ​vehicle ​ ​integrated
sampler).
You
​ ​are ​ ​not ​ ​quite ​ ​sure ​ ​why ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​has ​ ​a ​ ​Microbiologist ​ ​on​ ​staff, ​ ​but ​ ​you​ ​are ​ ​about ​ ​to ​ ​find ​ ​out
why
​ ​the ​ ​company ​ ​desperately ​ ​needs ​ ​one ​ ​now.
Your
​ ​boss ​ ​has ​ ​called ​ ​you​ ​into ​ ​his ​ ​office. ​ ​​ ​“Read ​ ​this ​ ​article!” ​ ​he ​ ​says, ​ ​pushing ​ ​the ​ ​front ​ ​page ​ ​of
The
​ ​Washington ​ ​Post ​ ​across ​ ​his ​ ​desk ​ ​to ​ ​you.​ ​​ ​Here ​ ​is ​ ​the ​ ​article:


ELVIS ​ ​NAKED, ​ ​SKINLESS ​ ​UPON
RETURN
​ ​FROM ​ ​OUTERSPACE

The recent return to Earth of Martian soil
sampler ELVIS has provided scientists with
the opportunity to determine if Martian soil
contains viable microorganisms. Although
NASA scientists have made great advances
in understanding the physical and chemical
conditions onthe surface of Mars, perhaps
the most interesting discoveries are yet to
come as biological scientists begin to
analyze the soil samples. Designed to gather
samples and maintain them in their normal
atmospheric and temperature conditions,
EVLIS is a sophisticated robot and is the
most expensive component of the SRV
probe. Inspired by the acronym for the unit
(ELVIS), workers constructed this robot to
resemble music legend Elvis Presley, and
even fashioned a white Spandex jumpsuit,
made out of DuPunt polyurethane to enclose
the sampler.
DuPunt Chemical company has benefited
tremendously from all of the publicity, and
has seen its sales of polyurethane quadruple.
This ‘human connection’ has been
instrumental in convincing Congress to
provide the necessary funding for NASA
and its many related space exploration
programs.
However, the successful completion of the
SRV mission has generated a mystery, one
that has led to accusations of contractors
providing substandard materials (in
particular defective plastics) used in the
SRV or of someone intentionally sabotaging
the plastic components of the SRV in an
This opening was part of a special,
televised ‘welcome home’ ceremony in
which ELVIS was supposed to ‘dance’
down the SRV exit ramp and speak his
trademark words, “Thank you…thank you
very much for supporting this critical
space exploration mission.”
NASA scientists and on-lookers at the
ceremony were shocked to find that
ELVIS’s jumpsuit had been reduced to a
slimy puddle. Even more distressing was
the deterioration of ELVIS’s ‘skin’ (a
version of Lycra specially developed to
resemble human skin). This too was
reduced to a slimy residue that dripped
from the metal ‘skeleton’ of the ELVIS
unit. The deterioration of the plastic
components of ELVIS ruined what
organizers had planned to be a touching
ceremony at the mission’s completion.
ELVIS’s exit from the otherwise intact
spacecraft was met bygasps and screams
from the gathered audience. “It was a
terrible sight!” said one member of the
audience. “We expected to see the King,
but we saw a horrible mess, a grotesque
parody of Elvis. Without his plastics lips,
I couldn’t understand a word he said…and
the smell was horrible! I’m telling you,I
thought I was going to hurl!!” said one
NASA official who wished to remain
anonymous.
Television viewers were spared much of
the trauma of these sights as networks
quickly switched to a new episode of Dino
Squad in which a cartoon version of the
ELVIS helps five teens transform into

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​

attempt to embarrass the U.S. space
exploration program.
Upon its return to Earth, the SRV capsule
was opened to allow scientists to recover the
soil samples.
dinosaurs and use their powers to protect
the Earth from global warming. An
investigation is underway.

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​Stifling ​ ​your ​ ​initial ​ ​reaction ​ ​(“Oh ​ ​yeah, ​ ​new ​ ​Dino ​ ​Squad!”) ​ ​you​ ​manage ​ ​to ​ ​mumble ​ ​“What ​ ​a
tragedy!”.
“Yes.
​ ​​ ​Yes. ​ ​​ ​And ​ ​this ​ ​could ​ ​take ​ ​an ​ ​ugly ​ ​turn ​ ​for ​ ​DuPunt!” ​ ​answers ​ ​your ​ ​boss. ​ ​​ ​“I’m ​ ​not ​ ​sure
what
​ ​caused ​ ​this ​ ​mess, ​ ​but ​ ​I ​ ​do​ ​know ​ ​a ​ ​couple ​ ​of ​ ​things ​ ​that ​ ​didn’t ​ ​make ​ ​it ​ ​into ​ ​that ​ ​Post ​ ​article:
the ​ ​only ​ ​plastics ​ ​showing ​ ​damage ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​SRV ​ ​were ​ ​polyurethanes;
our ​ ​company ​ ​(DuPunt) ​ ​provided ​ ​those ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​products ​ ​to ​ ​NASA ​ ​at ​ ​a ​ ​cost ​ ​of
$15,000,000.
​ ​​ ​We’re ​ ​in ​ ​big ​ ​trouble ​ ​if ​ ​we ​ ​can’t ​ ​prove ​ ​that ​ ​something ​ ​from ​ ​MARS ​ ​is
responsible
​ ​for ​ ​destroying ​ ​ELVIS
He
​ ​continues, ​ ​“The ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​products ​ ​we ​ ​provided ​ ​were ​ ​first-rate. ​ ​​ ​We ​ ​didn’t ​ ​cut ​ ​any
corners
​ ​with ​ ​this ​ ​stuff. ​ ​​ ​Products ​ ​from ​ ​the ​ ​same ​ ​batches ​ ​of ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​have ​ ​been ​ ​into ​ ​outer
space
​ ​before, ​ ​and ​ ​they ​ ​returned ​ ​just ​ ​fine. ​ ​​ ​There ​ ​must ​ ​be ​ ​some ​ ​explanation ​ ​other ​ ​than ​ ​our
incompetence.
​ ​​ ​​ ​This ​ ​is ​ ​where ​ ​you​ ​come ​ ​in: ​ ​I ​ ​need ​ ​you​ ​to ​ ​find ​ ​that ​ ​explanation!”
“Why
​ ​me?” ​ ​you​ ​ask.
“Because
​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​stink!” ​ ​your ​ ​boss ​ ​answers. ​ ​​ ​“Some ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​scientists ​ ​present ​ ​at ​ ​the ​ ​ELVIS ​ ​disaster
said
​ ​the ​ ​smell ​ ​reminded ​ ​them ​ ​of ​ ​an ​ ​old ​ ​fermenter ​ ​or ​ ​an ​ ​autoclave. ​ ​Those ​ ​are ​ ​microbiology ​ ​terms,
aren’t
​ ​they?” ​ ​says ​ ​your ​ ​boss. ​ ​​ ​“Those ​ ​comments ​ ​tell ​ ​me ​ ​that ​ ​this ​ ​whole ​ ​stinking ​ ​mess ​ ​might ​ ​be
caused
​ ​by​ ​microorganisms…you ​ ​know: ​ ​bacteria, ​ ​fungi, ​ ​viruses, ​ ​germs…something ​ ​like ​ ​that.
Get
​ ​right ​ ​to ​ ​work ​ ​on​ ​this! ​ ​​ ​You ​ ​and ​ ​I ​ ​will ​ ​have ​ ​to ​ ​work ​ ​closely ​ ​on ​ ​this, ​ ​you​ ​know. ​ ​​ ​I’ll ​ ​handle ​ ​all
the
​ ​communications ​ ​with ​ ​the ​ ​press, ​ ​and ​ ​you​ ​handle ​ ​the ​ ​science….just ​ ​make ​ ​sure ​ ​that ​ ​you​ ​explain
everything
​ ​to ​ ​me ​ ​so ​ ​that ​ ​I ​ ​can ​ ​speak ​ ​about ​ ​it ​ ​to ​ ​the ​ ​press ​ ​without ​ ​making ​ ​a ​ ​fool ​ ​of ​ ​myself ​ ​and
DuPunt!”
Okay.
​ ​​ ​You ​ ​are ​ ​a ​ ​trained ​ ​scientist…you ​ ​can ​ ​do​ ​this! ​ ​​ ​What ​ ​do​ ​scientists ​ ​do? ​ ​​ ​They ​ ​answer
questions
​ ​by​ ​testing ​ ​specific ​ ​hypotheses.
You
​ ​are ​ ​so ​ ​happy ​ ​that ​ ​you ​ ​took ​ ​a ​ ​lot ​ ​of ​ ​Microbiology ​ ​classes, ​ ​because ​ ​they ​ ​taught ​ ​you​ ​what
scientists
​ ​do! ​ ​​ ​If ​ ​you​ ​are ​ ​going ​ ​to ​ ​determine ​ ​what ​ ​happened ​ ​to ​ ​ELVIS, ​ ​you​ ​must ​ ​develop ​ ​a
testable ​ ​hypothesis, ​ ​and ​ ​then ​ ​generate ​ ​data ​ ​to ​ ​determine ​ ​if ​ ​your ​ ​explanation ​ ​makes ​ ​sense. ​ ​As ​ ​a
Microbiologist
​ ​at ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​you​ ​must ​ ​determine ​ ​what ​ ​has ​ ​happened ​ ​to ​ ​the ​ ​polyurethane.
As
​ ​an ​ ​employee ​ ​of ​ ​DUPUNT ​ ​Here ​ ​is ​ ​your ​ ​hypothesis:
“The ​ ​degradation ​ ​of ​ ​polyurethane ​ ​products ​ ​was ​ ​caused ​ ​by ​ ​a​ ​microorganism ​ ​or
microorganisms
​ ​present ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​soil ​ ​samples ​ ​collected ​ ​by ​ ​ELVIS.”
As ​ ​a ​ ​first ​ ​step ​ ​in ​ ​testing ​ ​your ​ ​hypothesis, ​ ​you​ ​believe ​ ​that ​ ​it ​ ​should ​ ​be ​ ​possible ​ ​to ​ ​visualize
microorganisms
​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​degraded ​ ​goo​ ​by​ ​microscopy.
To
​ ​test ​ ​this ​ ​hypothesis, ​ ​you ​ ​will ​ ​need ​ ​to ​ ​think ​ ​about ​ ​some ​ ​specific ​ ​experiment(s), ​ ​but ​ ​you​ ​will
also
​ ​need ​ ​to ​ ​learn ​ ​and/or ​ ​remember ​ ​some ​ ​basic ​ ​Microbiology.
As
​ ​you​ ​address ​ ​this ​ ​large ​ ​question, ​ ​ask ​ ​yourself:
What ​ ​do​ ​you​ ​know ​ ​at ​ ​this ​ ​point ​ ​that ​ ​will ​ ​help ​ ​you​ ​to ​ ​address ​ ​this ​ ​hypothesis?
What ​ ​do​ ​you​ ​think ​ ​you​ ​need ​ ​to ​ ​know/learn ​ ​to ​ ​be ​ ​able ​ ​to ​ ​test ​ ​your​ ​overall ​ ​hypothesis?
How ​ ​realistic ​ ​is ​ ​the ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​Microbiologist ​ ​hypothesis?
Is
​ ​your ​ ​boss ​ ​just ​ ​grasping ​ ​at ​ ​straws, ​ ​or ​ ​is ​ ​there ​ ​really ​ ​a​ ​possibility ​ ​that ​ ​Microbes ​ ​from
Mars
​ ​could ​ ​be ​ ​the ​ ​culprits ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​degradation ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​polyurethane?
In​ ​order ​ ​to​ ​answer ​ ​this ​ ​question,​ ​you​ ​need​ ​to​ ​find​ ​out ​ ​several ​ ​things.​ ​​ ​One ​ ​thing
you
​ ​would​ ​need​ ​to​ ​explore ​ ​is ​ ​whether ​ ​there ​ ​is ​ ​any ​ ​evidence ​ ​that ​ ​microbes ​ ​could
exist
​​s
omewhere
​ ​other ​ ​than​ ​earth.
To ​ ​help ​ ​you​ ​consider ​ ​the ​ ​support ​ ​for ​ ​your ​ ​hypothesis, ​ ​we ​ ​will ​ ​provide ​ ​some ​ ​specific ​ ​smaller
questions:
​ ​PAK ​ ​questions.
For
​ ​the ​ ​ELVIS ​ ​Meltdown ​ ​case ​ ​there ​ ​will ​ ​be ​ ​4​ ​PAK ​ ​questions.


Question ​ ​one


Using ​ ​light ​ ​microscopy, ​ ​you ​ ​examine ​ ​the ​ ​soil ​ ​samples ​ ​and ​ ​the ​ ​‘goo’ ​ ​from ​ ​the ​ ​degraded
polyurethane.
​ ​Will ​ ​this ​ ​approach ​ ​allow ​ ​you ​ ​to ​ ​observe ​ ​all ​ ​microorganisms ​ ​present ​ ​in ​ ​the
samples?
Why
​ ​or ​ ​why ​ ​not?
What
​ ​are ​ ​the ​ ​limitations ​ ​of ​ ​this ​ ​approach?

Question ​ ​two


You ​ ​use ​ ​phase ​ ​contrast ​ ​microscopy ​ ​to ​ ​observe ​ ​a ​ ​wet ​ ​mount ​ ​of ​ ​a ​ ​soil ​ ​sample ​ ​(the ​ ​first
picture
​ ​below) ​ ​and ​ ​a ​ ​“goo” ​ ​sample ​ ​(the ​ ​second ​ ​image ​ ​below) ​ ​from ​ ​the ​ ​ELVIS. ​ ​In ​ ​what
ways
​ ​are ​ ​the ​ ​potential ​ ​ET ​ ​microbes ​ ​similar ​ ​to ​ ​microbes ​ ​previously ​ ​characterized ​ ​on
Earth?
​ ​In ​ ​what ​ ​ways ​ ​are ​ ​they ​ ​different? ​ ​How ​ ​could
you
​ ​determine ​ ​whether ​ ​the ​ ​microbes ​ ​present ​ ​in ​ ​the ​ ​soil ​ ​or ​ ​goo ​ ​samples ​ ​are
phylogenetically
​ ​similar ​ ​or ​ ​distant ​ ​from ​ ​known ​ ​microorganisms ​ ​on ​ ​Earth?


Question ​ ​three


Your ​ ​boss ​ ​has ​ ​done ​ ​a ​ ​little ​ ​reading ​ ​about ​ ​microorganisms, ​ ​but ​ ​he ​ ​finds ​ ​it ​ ​all ​ ​pretty
confusing.
​ ​“Dude ​ ​it’s ​ ​like ​ ​a ​ ​foreign ​ ​language!” ​ ​he ​ ​complains. ​ ​“I ​ ​have ​ ​to ​ ​face ​ ​the ​ ​press ​ ​to
explain
​ ​our ​ ​idea ​ ​that ​ ​microbes ​ ​might ​ ​be ​ ​responsible ​ ​for ​ ​all ​ ​the ​ ​damage ​ ​to ​ ​ELVIS, ​ ​but ​ ​I
can’t
​ ​even ​ ​pronounce ​ ​most ​ ​of ​ ​these ​ ​terms, ​ ​much ​ ​less ​ ​explain ​ ​them. ​ ​I ​ ​think ​ ​that ​ ​it ​ ​will
help
​ ​my ​ ​press ​ ​conference ​ ​presentation ​ ​a ​ ​lot ​ ​if ​ ​I ​ ​can ​ ​use ​ ​some ​ ​visual ​ ​aids. ​ ​What ​ ​I ​ ​want
to
​ ​do ​ ​is ​ ​explain ​ ​to ​ ​my ​ ​audience ​ ​what ​ ​bacteria ​ ​look ​ ​like. ​ ​You ​ ​know ​ ​the ​ ​functional
architecture ​ ​of ​ ​bacteria ​ ​and ​ ​how ​ ​they ​ ​might ​ ​be ​ ​able ​ ​to ​ ​degrade ​ ​polyurethane. ​ ​I ​ ​think ​ ​that
eukaryotes
​ ​might ​ ​be ​ ​too ​ ​complicated ​ ​for ​ ​this ​ ​audience, ​ ​so ​ ​I ​ ​just ​ ​want ​ ​to ​ ​show ​ ​them ​ ​what
Gram-negative
​ ​bacteria ​ ​look ​ ​like ​ ​in ​ ​a ​ ​schematic ​ ​diagram. ​ ​I’ve ​ ​put ​ ​together ​ ​this ​ ​diagram
of
​ ​a ​ ​typical ​ ​Gram-negative ​ ​cell. ​ ​Take ​ ​a ​ ​look ​ ​at ​ ​it ​ ​and ​ ​make ​ ​any ​ ​corrections ​ ​you ​ ​think ​ ​are
necessary.
​ ​Notice ​ ​that ​ ​I ​ ​not ​ ​only ​ ​labeled ​ ​the ​ ​features, ​ ​I ​ ​also ​ ​indicated ​ ​the ​ ​major
biochemical
​ ​composition ​ ​and ​ ​function(s) ​ ​and ​ ​of ​ ​each ​ ​main ​ ​feature. ​ ​Oh ​ ​yeah ​ ​this ​ ​figure
will
​ ​probably ​ ​make ​ ​it ​ ​into ​ ​lots ​ ​of ​ ​newspapers, ​ ​magazines, ​ ​and ​ ​web ​ ​sites, ​ ​so ​ ​it ​ ​needs ​ ​to
be
​ ​scientifically ​ ​correct. ​ ​We ​ ​wouldn’t ​ ​want ​ ​to ​ ​make ​ ​DuPunt ​ ​look ​ ​stupid, ​ ​would ​ ​we?
Anywho
​ ​I’ve ​ ​already ​ ​done ​ ​most ​ ​of ​ ​the ​ ​work. ​ ​Just ​ ​proofread ​ ​it ​ ​and ​ ​make ​ ​a ​ ​list ​ ​of
necessary
​ ​corrections.”
What
​ ​corrections ​ ​would ​ ​you ​ ​make ​ ​to ​ ​[A], ​ ​through ​ ​[G], ​ ​if ​ ​any?

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Last Updated on April 25, 2020 by