Laboratory Procedures for Hominoid/Hominin Osteometrics

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Laboratory Procedures for Hominoid/Hominin Osteometrics

  1. Read these materials BEFORE laboratory day and meet with the instructor, by phone or Zoom, PRIOR to laboratory if you need clarifications.
  2. Lots of measurements in this lab.

Equipment

  1. Online cranial and skull replicas 2. Paper rulers

Scenario

Ever since your brother sent you that dinosaur model, you have wanted to be a

paleoanthropologist. Of course, since then you have learned that dinosaurs did not live at the

same time as our hominin ancestors! At least now, you can laugh at all those B-rated movies.

It is the first day of your fossil identification course. Your instructor, Dr. Wolpoff, strides in and,

for a moment, you think that Neanderthals are still living. He is a stocky man, with heavy bone

structure and a cranium shape that strongly resembles a football. You shake your head, clear

your vision, and note the Armani suit. Relieved, you pull out your paper and pen, eyeing the lab

specimens with great anticipation.

Procedure

In this laboratory you are asked to use rulers to measure a number of cranial landmarks directly

on your computer screen.

Part 1:

General Familiarization with Hominin Skull Traits

  • Use the list of links at the end of this handout as your specimens. Measure values directly on

your computer screen using your printed ruler and printed protractor.

  • If you cannot perform a measurement due to working on screen or the cranium is incomplete,

mark as MD (missing data).

  • I suggest you complete all entries for one specimen before you progress to next.

Step 1: For each skull, measure the set of anatomical traits identified in Tables 1A. 2A, and 3A

and 4A. Be sure to refer to Appendices A, B, and F.

Step 2: Once these data are collected, calculate each osteometric index listed in Tables 1B, 2B

and 3B and 4B.

  • Special Note 1: The 3D may not be proportional, so the data for the set of anatomical traits

may not be to scale

  • Special Note 2: Because osteometric indices are ratios, they should be accurate.
  • Special Note 3: As in real situations, not all parts of each cranium are available. If this

occurs, mark MD for missing data.

Hominin Osteometrics Procedures 2

Part 2:

Online lab exercise

  • The online option is more interactive. If possible, choose between Options 1-3.
  • For Options 1-3, follow the instructions and record data in the online lab book (otherwise you cannot

move to next step). Before you move onto next step, print or screenshot the data you entered into the

online lab book.

  • For Option 4, use the tables provided in the Data Collection handout.

Options:

  • Option 1: Use Chrome:

o Go to <https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html> and

select the lab called “Comparing Hominoid Skulls”

o If you cannot open, try this: To enable Flash for the site, click the lock icon at the left side of the

Omnibox (address bar), click the “Flash” box, and then click “Allow.” Chrome prompts you to

reload the page—click “Reload.” Even after you reload the page, any Flash content won’t be

loaded—you have to click it to load it.

  • Option 2: Use Internet Explorer:
  • Go to <https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html> and

select the lab called “Comparing Hominoid Skulls”

  • If you cannot open, follow this tutorial: <

player-windows.html>

  • Option 3: Use Firefox.
  • Go to<https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html> and

select the lab called “Comparing Hominoid Skulls”

  • If you cannot open, follow this tutorial:

view-videos-animations-games

  • Option 4. Perform this portion of the lab using this paper version:

<http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/5_Hominin_Osteometrics/Paper_virtual_lab.pdf >

For Step 3

Cranial shape: Use these terms: dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic, and brachycephalic. Read more at this

link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalic_index#Mesaticephalic_animals

  • Forehead: Does the forehead extend above the eyes (yes or no)? Is the brow ridge small, medium or

large?

  • Face: Is the face sloped or is it flat?
  • Canines: Are the canines long or short? Are they sharp or dull?

For Step 4

Is the foramen magnum to the front or the rear of the skull?

For Step 5

There is a series of 6 questions in the lab book. Type your responses directly into the lab book and then

print that page (or screenshot it) to submit with the data collection.

https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

https://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player/kb/install-flash-player-windows.html

https://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player/kb/install-flash-player-windows.html

https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/install-flash-plugin-view-videos-animations-games

https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/install-flash-plugin-view-videos-animations-games

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/5_Hominin_Osteometrics/Paper_virtual_lab.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalic_index#Mesaticephalic_animals

Hominin Osteometrics Procedures 3

List of Links to Hominin Crania (no mandibles)

Species Link

Aegyptopithecus zeuxis d570e76e2f8344eab7576531f7a9464e

Sahelanthropus tchadensis

(Toumai)

cranium-3f0c2b5a202d4a9abdcde8d7c6b59dcc

Ardipithecus ramidus 822ddc3aca1246239dfe6b26377c7d3e

Kenyanthropus platyops https://africanfossils.org/hominids/knmer-1813?o=1

Australopithecus aethiopicus

[Paranthropus aethiopicus]

cranium-b83e96198d5f4d0bb9867e566221984e

Australopithecus boisei

[Paranthropus boisei]

b031af6a54e045fc8fd1ca459745cdb3 OR

https://africanfossils.org/hominids/oh-5?o=1

Australopithecus robustus

[Paranthropus robustus]

86199602a4704a099da9c611a4d62e7c

Australopithecus afarensis

cranium-e940798227b343b6bec9704c7795e6f1

Australopithecus africanus

(STS 5)

cranium-7f8141ca7e664415bed7f877e346b963

Homo habilis

5c21649325634e3d821fd728ba489f74 OR

https://africanfossils.org/hominids/knmer-1813?o=1

Homo rudolfensis 5bc81b6b77cb40c6bd09fd320dc00c30 OR

https://africanfossils.org/hominids/knmer-1470?o=1 Homo erectus

(Dmanisi)

geogria-0c542938b0364748982e638ea1d80982

Homo heidelbergensis

(Kabwe 1)

cranium-6b3107c066594dc7b502d49b26e3c8fc

Homo neanderthalensis

(La Ferrassie)

ferrassie-cranium-3f1bd5e63dcf42888cd8e9697ff77449

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/aegyptopithecus-zeuxis-cranium-d570e76e2f8344eab7576531f7a9464e

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/aegyptopithecus-zeuxis-cranium-d570e76e2f8344eab7576531f7a9464e

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/sahelanthropus-tchadensis-toumai-cranium-3f0c2b5a202d4a9abdcde8d7c6b59dcc

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/sahelanthropus-tchadensis-toumai-cranium-3f0c2b5a202d4a9abdcde8d7c6b59dcc

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/ardipithecus-ramidus-cranium-822ddc3aca1246239dfe6b26377c7d3e

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/ardipithecus-ramidus-cranium-822ddc3aca1246239dfe6b26377c7d3e

https://africanfossils.org/hominids/knmer-1813?o=1

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-aethiopicus-cranium-b83e96198d5f4d0bb9867e566221984e

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-aethiopicus-cranium-b83e96198d5f4d0bb9867e566221984e

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-boisei-cranium-b031af6a54e045fc8fd1ca459745cdb3

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-boisei-cranium-b031af6a54e045fc8fd1ca459745cdb3

https://africanfossils.org/hominids/oh-5?o=1

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/paranthropus-robustus-86199602a4704a099da9c611a4d62e7c

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/paranthropus-robustus-86199602a4704a099da9c611a4d62e7c

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-afarensis-cranium-e940798227b343b6bec9704c7795e6f1

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-afarensis-cranium-e940798227b343b6bec9704c7795e6f1

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-africanus-sts-5-cranium-7f8141ca7e664415bed7f877e346b963

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-africanus-sts-5-cranium-7f8141ca7e664415bed7f877e346b963

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-habilis-cranium-5c21649325634e3d821fd728ba489f74

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-habilis-cranium-5c21649325634e3d821fd728ba489f74

https://africanfossils.org/hominids/knmer-1813?o=1

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-rudolfensis-cranium-5bc81b6b77cb40c6bd09fd320dc00c30

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-rudolfensis-cranium-5bc81b6b77cb40c6bd09fd320dc00c30

https://africanfossils.org/hominids/knmer-1470?o=1

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-erectus-skull-from-dmanisi-geogria-0c542938b0364748982e638ea1d80982

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-erectus-skull-from-dmanisi-geogria-0c542938b0364748982e638ea1d80982

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-heidelbergensis-kabwe-1-cranium-6b3107c066594dc7b502d49b26e3c8fc

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-heidelbergensis-kabwe-1-cranium-6b3107c066594dc7b502d49b26e3c8fc

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-neanderthalensis-la-ferrassie-cranium-3f1bd5e63dcf42888cd8e9697ff77449

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-neanderthalensis-la-ferrassie-cranium-3f1bd5e63dcf42888cd8e9697ff77449

Hominin Osteometrics Procedures 4

List of Hominin Skulls

Australopithecus afarensis

(Lucy)

lucy-da45bb3252fd4de39607639571dfa25e

Australopithecus africanus e2574f575b2a4af09d5895d363af9e25

Homo erectus https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:649628 OR

e39dfdb51c2b461f8e4c3aeb029da4cd

Homo naledi

homo-naledi-reconstructed-skull-46611

Homo floresiensis 4e424b65d4804a6f9be00215e5172128

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-afarensis-lucy-da45bb3252fd4de39607639571dfa25e

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-afarensis-lucy-da45bb3252fd4de39607639571dfa25e

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-africanus-e2574f575b2a4af09d5895d363af9e25

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/australopithecus-africanus-e2574f575b2a4af09d5895d363af9e25

https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:649628

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-erectus-e39dfdb51c2b461f8e4c3aeb029da4cd

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/homo-erectus-e39dfdb51c2b461f8e4c3aeb029da4cd

https://www.myminifactory.com/object/3d-print-complete-homo-naledi-reconstructed-skull-46611

https://www.myminifactory.com/object/3d-print-complete-homo-naledi-reconstructed-skull-46611

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/lb1-homo-floresiensis-skull-4e424b65d4804a6f9be00215e5172128

https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/lb1-homo-floresiensis-skull-4e424b65d4804a6f9be00215e5172128

Name ___________________________________________________________ Anthropology &215

Grading: For each, use X if completed, P if partially completed, and 0 if not attempted.

_____ Table 1A (3 points) _____ Table 1B (1.25 points)

_____ Table 2A (3 points) _____ Table 2B (1.25 points) _____ Table 3A (3 points) _____ Table 3B (1.25 points)

_____ Table 4A (3 points) _____ Table 4B (1.25 points) _____ Table 5A (1 point) _____ Table 5B (1 point) _____ Table 5C (1 point)

_________________________________________________________________________________

Part 1:

Comparison of Traits and Osteometric Indices

Table 1A: Comparison of Traits for an Early Primate and Two of the Oldest Hominins (3 points)

Trait Aegyptopithecus zeuxis S. tchadensis A. ramidus

Maximum length ________ ________ ________

Maximum breadth ________ ________ ________

Basion-Bregma Height ________ ________ ________

Total facial height ________ ________ ________

Upper facial height ________ ________ ________

Bizygomatic breadth ________ ________ ________

Nasal height ________ ________ ________

Nasal Breadth ________ ________ ________

Orbital height ________ ________ ________

Orbital breadth ________ ________ ________

Bicondylar Breadth ________ ________ ________

Bigonial Breadth ________ ________ ________

Upper facial depth ________ ________ ________

Lower facial Depth ________ ________ ________

Table 1B: Osteometric Indices for an Early Primate and Two of the Oldest Hominins (1.25 points)

Aegyptopithecus zeuxis S. tchadensis A. ramidus

Cranial Index ________ ________ ________

Cranial Length-Height Index ________ ________ ________

Total Facial Index ________ ________ ________

Upper Facial Index ________ ________ ________

Nasal Index ________ ________ ________

http://projects.leadr.msu.edu/hominidfossils/exhibits/show/proto-hominids/aegyptopithecus-zeuxis

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/sahelanthropus-tchadensis

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/ardipithecus-ramidus

http://projects.leadr.msu.edu/hominidfossils/exhibits/show/proto-hominids/aegyptopithecus-zeuxis

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/sahelanthropus-tchadensis

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/ardipithecus-ramidus

Table 2A:

Comparison of Traits for Three Robust Australopithecus [Paranthropus] Species

(3 points)

Trait A. aethiopicus A. boisei A robustus

Maximum length ________ ________ ________

Maximum breadth ________ ________ ________

Basion-Bregma Height ________ ________ ________

Total facial height ________ ________ ________

Upper facial height ________ ________ ________

Bizygomatic breadth ________ ________ ________

Nasal height ________ ________ ________

Nasal Breadth ________ ________ ________

Orbital height ________ ________ ________

Orbital breadth ________ ________ ________

Bicondylar Breadth ________ ________ ________

Bigonial Breadth ________ ________ ________

Upper facial depth ________ ________ ________

Lower facial Depth ________ ________ ________

Table 2B:

Osteometric Indices for Three Robust Australopithecus [Paranthropus] Species

(1.25 points)

  1. aethiopicus A. boisei A robustus

Cranial Index ________ ________ ________

Cranial Length-Height

Index ________ ________ ________

Total Facial Index ________ ________ ________

Upper Facial Index ________ ________ ________

Nasal Index ________ ________ ________

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-aethiopicus

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/kenyanthropus-platyops

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-robustus

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-aethiopicus

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/kenyanthropus-platyops

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-robustus

Table 3A:

Comparison of Traits for Three Early Hominins

(3 points)

Trait Kenyanthropus platyops A. afarensis A. africanus

Maximum length ________ ________ ________

Maximum breadth ________ ________ ________

Basion-Bregma Height ________ ________ ________

Total facial height ________ ________ ________

Upper facial height ________ ________ ________

Bizygomatic breadth ________ ________ ________

Nasal height ________ ________ ________

Nasal Breadth ________ ________ ________

Orbital height ________ ________ ________

Orbital breadth ________ ________ ________

Bicondylar Breadth ________ ________ ________

Bigonial Breadth ________ ________ ________

Upper facial depth ________ ________ ________

Lower facial Depth ________ ________ ________

Table 3B:

Osteometric Indices for Three Early Hominins

(1.25 points)

Kenyanthropus platyops A. afarensis A. africanus

Cranial Index ________ ________ ________

Cranial Length-Height Index ________ ________ ________

Total Facial Index ________ ________ ________

Upper Facial Index ________ ________ ________

Nasal Index ________ ________ ________

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/kenyanthropus-platyops

Hominin_Osteometrics_DataCollection_OL.rtf

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/australopithecus-africanus

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/kenyanthropus-platyops

Hominin_Osteometrics_DataCollection_OL.rtf

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/australopithecus-africanus

Table 4A:

Comparison of Traits for Three Species in the Homo Line

(Pick from the List)

(3 points)

Trait Homo ______________ Homo ______________ Homo ______________

Maximum length ________ ________ ________

Maximum breadth ________ ________ ________

Basion-Bregma Height ________ ________ ________

Total facial height ________ ________ ________

Upper facial height ________ ________ ________

Bizygomatic breadth ________ ________ ________

Nasal height ________ ________ ________

Nasal Breadth ________ ________ ________

Orbital height ________ ________ ________

Orbital breadth ________ ________ ________

Bicondylar Breadth ________ ________ ________

Bigonial Breadth ________ ________ ________

Upper facial depth ________ ________ ________

Lower facial Depth ________ ________ ________

Table 4B:

Osteometric Indices for Three Species in the Homo Line

(Pick from the List) (1.25 points)

Homo _________ Homo ___________ Homo ____________

Cranial Index ________ ________ ________

Cranial Length-Height Index ________ ________ ________

Total Facial Index ________ ________ ________

Upper Facial Index ________ ________ ________

Nasal Index ________ ________ ________

Part 2: Online Lab

Table 5A:

Online Skull Comparisons (Supra-Orbital Heights)

(1 point)

Species BC AC X 100 Surpa-orbital Height

Pan troglodytes ________ ________ ________________

Australopithecus afarensis ________ ________ ________________

Homo sapiens sapiens ________ ________ ________________

Homo erectus ________ ________ ________________

Fossil skull ________ ________ ________________

Table 5B:

Cranial Observations

(1 point)

Species Braincase shape Forehead Face

Pan troglodytes ___________________ ___________________ ________________

Australopithecus afarensis ___________________ ___________________ ________________

Homo sapiens sapiens ___________________ ___________________ ________________

Homo erectus ___________________ ___________________ ________________

Fossil skull ___________________ ___________________ ________________

Table 5C:

Dental Observations

(1 point)

Species Canines Foramen magnum

Pan troglodytes ___________________ ___________________

Australopithecus afarensis ___________________ ___________________

Homo sapiens sapiens ___________________ ___________________

Homo erectus ___________________ ___________________

Fossil skull ___________________ ___________________

Extra Credit: Answer these questions concerning the online lab (2 points)

  1. To which of the four species does your fossil skull likely belong? Justify your answer with evidence.
  2. How does the shape of the face differ between Australopithecus afarensis and Homo sapiens?
  3. How do the canine teeth differ between Australopithecus afarensis and Homo sapiens?
  4. What do you think accounts for the differences you observed in the skulls and teeth of the hominoids?
  5. How did the skulls compare in terms of cranial size? What does this indicate about the brains of the different hominoids?
  6. In what way do you think the position of the foramen magnum relates to the movement of the hominoid?

Laboratory Procedures for Primate Osteometrics

Last Updated on June 25, 2020 by Essay Pro