Human Adaptation: Seeking Homeostasis When Under Stress

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Human Adaptation: Seeking Homeostasis When Under Stress

Laboratory Procedures for Hominoid/Hominin Osteometrics

Humans have developed cultural, genetic, and physiological adaptations (see Appendix A) which

have allowed them to live in diverse climate and geographic regions. From your lab prep, you

reviewed that environmental stressors include solar radiation, heat and cold, and even altitude stress.

This laboratory will focus, primarily, on short-term physiological responses to exercise stress

(genetics and physiology) and nutrition (culture).

Procedures

Equipment

1) Method to measure pulse rate: 1) Manually or use a smart phone app [Search under heart rate or pulse rate] Test out your method before you start the lab.

2) Enough room to exercise 3) Graph paper

Part 1:

Exercise responses for pulse rate and respiration rate

  1. Special Note: Be sure to wear clothing that is easily maneuvered around the wrist area on the day of the lab.
  2. Any type of physical activity is fine for this lab. Do NOT start a vigorous workout for the

first time today. Running, jogging, pacing, swinging your arms, all are fine. Any activity of

any intensity, as long as you can sustain it for 30 minutes.

  1. Stop if any discomfort occurs.
  2. Pre-exercise period
  3. For ten minutes prior to exercising, sit quietly and measure your “resting pulse rate”

(beats/minute) and “resting respiration rate (breaths/minute)”.

  1. Perform these measurements every two minutes and record in Table 1.
  2. Now, engage in 30 minutes of physical activity.
  3. Measure your “active pulse rate” and “active respiration rate”.
  4. Perform these measurements every two minutes and record in Table 1
  5. During your recovery period, again sit quietly and avoid physical activity for 20 minutes.
  6. Measure your “recovery pulse rate” and “recovery respiration rate”.
  7. Perform these measurements every two minutes and record in Table 1
  8. Plot your data in Figures 1 and 2.

Part 2:

Calorimetry

(5 points)

  • Turn in a copy of all lab notes generated in this lab.
  • Be sure to screenshot or print these as you go, as you can not backtrack
  • Answer the set of questions at the end of the lab (Step 15)

Special Note: If you perform the Calorimetry lab online, record data for 5 foods (Options 1-3. If

you use the paper copy (Option 4), you must do all 10 foods.

1) Click on this link to access the online lab called Calorimetry:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AHHr8qNU9QY

Cold Laboratory Procedures 2

2

https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

2) Complete all steps and print the lab notes.

Options:

  • Option 1: Use Chrome:

o Go to <https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html> and

select the lab called “Comparing Hominoid Skulls”

o If you cannot open, try this: To enable Flash for the site, click the lock icon at the left side of the

Omnibox (address bar), click the “Flash” box, and then click “Allow.” Chrome prompts you to

reload the page—click “Reload.” Even after you reload the page, any Flash content won’t be

loaded—you have to click it to load it.

  • Option 2: Use Internet Explorer:
  • Go to <https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html> and

select the lab called “Comparing Hominoid Skulls”

  • If you cannot open, follow this tutorial: <

player-windows.html>

  • Option 3: Use Firefox.
  • Go to<https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html> and

select the lab called “Comparing Hominoid Skulls”

  • If you cannot open, follow this tutorial:

view-videos-animations-games

  • Option 4. Perform this portion of the lab using this paper version:

<http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/6_Cold/Cold_paper_virtual_lab.pdf >

Record your information in Tables 2-5

  • Table 1 is a prediction of food density (calories) for low to high
  • Table 2 is a record of changes in mass and water temperature, using a calorimeter.
  • Table 3 is a set of calculations (see below):
  • Calculation 1 (Review calculation here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ak7PN8tn4cU)

o To calculate the number of Calories (calories) released by the food sample, use the

following formula: Q=mcΔT

o Q= Calories in food sample

o m= mass of water (600g as 1 ml = 1 g)

o c= heat capacity of water 0C [The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of

1 gram of water by 1 degree oC]

  • The formula is in calories, but food units are reported in Calories (kcalories) so

you divide by 1000 to get the correct units.]

  • Remember conversions:

o 1 Kg = 1000 g

o 1 Calorie = 1000 gram calories

o ΔT= change in temperature [Of the water in the calorimeter]

  • Calculation 1: Calories in food sample = (Mass of water)( ΔT) X(1 Kg)/(1000 g) X (1

Calorie)/(1000 gram calories)

https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

https://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player/kb/install-flash-player-windows.html

https://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player/kb/install-flash-player-windows.html

https://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/virtual_labs/virtualLabs.html

https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/install-flash-plugin-view-videos-animations-games

https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/install-flash-plugin-view-videos-animations-games

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/6_Cold/Cold_paper_virtual_lab.pdf

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ak7PN8tn4cU

Cold Laboratory Procedures 3

3

o Example: Calories in food sample = (600 ml)(5.2 0C) X(1 Kg)/(1000 g) X (1

Calorie)/(1000 gram calories) = 3.12 Cal

o Simple version: Calories in food sample = [(Column A in Table 3)(Column B in

Table 3)]/1000

  • Calculation 2

o The second calculation is important so that you are comparing foods per gram.

o To calculate the Calories per gram (Cal/g) use the following formula:

o Calories per Gram (Cal/g)= Calories in Food Sample (Cal)/Change in the Mass of the

sample (g)

o Simple version: Column D in Table 4 = Column C in Table 4/Column A in

Table 4.

  • Table 5 is a ranking of actual calorie densities (low to high) based on Column D in Table 4.
  • Last, complete the set of Calorimetry Questions.

Name _______________________________________________________________ Anthropology &215

Grading: For each, use X if completed, P if partially completed, and 0 if not attempted.

______ Table 1 (10 points) ______ Plot Figure 1 (1.5 points)

______ Plot Figure 2 (1.5 points) ______ Table 2 (0.5 points)

Table 3 (2.5 points) Table 4 (2 points)

Table 5 (0.5 points) ______ Post-lab questions (1.5 points)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Data Collection (Lab)

Part 1: Exercise responses for pulse rate and respiration rate

  • Complete the data for Table 1 (10 points)
  • Plot your data on the graphs (Figure 1 and Figure 2) (3 points)
  • Here is a link to a free graphing paper site: https://incompetech.com/graphpaper/
  • Scan or photocopy each graph and submit with your lab results.
  • Alternatively, you can generate using MS Excel and then save as pdf file.
  • Plot the data for BOTH pulse rate/minute and for respirations/minute.
  • Figure 1: Plot pulse rate.

o Label the x-axis as: Time (minutes)

o Label the y-axis as: Beats (per minute)

o Place the caption BELOW the graph and label as: Figure 1: Effect of exercise on

pulse rate of test subject.

  • Figure 2: Plot respirations/minute.

o Label the x-axis as: Time (minutes)

o Label the y-axis as: Breaths (per minute)

o Place the caption BELOW the graph and label as: Figure 2: Effect of exercise on

respiration rate of test subject.

Part 2: Calorimetry (10 points)
  • For online Options 1-3, be sure to screenshot or print these as you go, as you can not

backtrack. Then transfer your data to Tables 2-5. Complete the Calorimetry Questions in the

spaces provided below in this handout.

  • If you opt for Option 4 (the paper version) you will need to use the data provided at the link: <http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/6_Cold/Cold_paper_virtual_lab.pdf >

Special Note: If you perform the Calorimetry lab online, record data for 5 foods (Options 1-3. If

you use the paper copy (Option 4), you must do all 10 foods.

https://incompetech.com/graphpaper/

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/6_Cold/Cold_paper_virtual_lab.pdf

Homeostasis Laboratory Data Collection 2

Table 1: Exercise responses for pulse rate (per minute) & respiration rate (per minute). (10 points)

Time (in minutes) Pulse Respirations Notes

-10 minutes (1st measurement resting) ________ ________ Start of 10 minutes resting

-8 minutes ________ ________

– 6 minutes ________ ________

– 4 minutes ________ ________

-2 minutes ________ ________

0 (last measurement resting) ________ ________ Time lapsed: 10 minutes.

2 (first measurement exercising) ________ ________ Start of 30 minutes exercising

4 ________ ________

6 ________ ________

8 ________ ________

10 ________ ________

12 ________ ________

14 ________ ________

16 ________ ________

18 ________ ________

20 ________ ________

22 ________ ________

24 ________ ________

26 ________ ________

28 ________ ________

30 (last measurement exercising) ________ ________ Time lapsed: 40 minutes

32 (first measurement recovery) ________ ________ Start of 20 minutes recovery

34 ________ ________

36 ________ ________

38 ________ ________

40 ________ ________

42 ________ ________

44 ________ ________

46 ________ ________

48 ________ ________

50 (20 minutes recovery) ________ ________ Time lapsed: 60 minutes

Homeostasis Laboratory Data Collection 3

Special Note: If you perform the Calorimetry lab online, record data for 5 foods (Options 1-3). If you use the paper

copy (Option 4), you must do all 10 foods.

Table 2:

Prediction of food calories for 10 food samples

(least to most) (0.5 points)

Food sample (List from least to most calorie dense)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Table 3:

Changes in mass and water temperature for 10 food samples.

(2.5 points)

Column A Column B

Food sample Initial Mass (g) Final Mass (g) Δ Mass (g) Initial H20 Temp (0C) Final H20 Temp (0C) Δ H20 temp (0C)

Banana 16.32 15.02 20.0 27.2

Bread 15.79 15.01 20.0 23.2

Broccoli 16.24 15.02 20.0 21.8

Carrots 16.02 15.02 20.0 20.7

Cheese 16.32 15.02 20.0 27.2

Chicken 16.28 15.02 20.0 22.3

Chocolate 16.32 15.02 20.0 31.6

Margarine 16.11 15.01 20.0 33.2

Orange 16.3 15.02 20.0 21.0

Tortilla 16.09 15.01 1.08 20.0 25.2 5.20

Table 4:

Analysis for Food Samples

(2 points)

Column A Column B Column C Column D

Food Sample Δ in Mass (g) Δ in Water Temp (0C) Calories in Sample (Cal) Calories per Gram (Cal/g)

Banana

Bread

Broccoli

Carrots

Cheese

Chicken

Chocolate

Margarine

Orange

Tortilla 1.08 5.20 3.12 2.89

Homeostasis Laboratory Data Collection 4

Table 5:

Actual food calories for 10 food samples (least to most)

(0.5 points)

Calorimetry Questions

(1.5 points)

  1. Look back at your predictions. Were they correct? [50+ words]
  2. What is the relationship between the release of energy as heat and your calculation of Calories? [50+ words]
  3. How could this information be useful to help plan a healthy diet? [50+ words]

Food sample (List from least to most calorie dense)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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