Twenty years ago I knew a man called Jiggins, who had
the Health Habit.
He used to take a cold plunge every morning. He said it
opened his pores. After it he took a hot sponge. He said
it closed the pores. He got so that he could open and
shut his pores at will.
Jiggins used to stand and breathe at an open window for
half an hour before dressing. He said it expanded his
lungs. He might, of course, have had it done in a shoe-store
with a boot stretcher, but after all it cost him nothing
this way, and what is half an hour?
After he had got his undershirt on, Jiggins used to hitch
himself up like a dog in harness and do Sandow exercises.
He did them forwards, backwards, and hind-side up.
He could have got a job as a dog anywhere. He spent all
his time at this kind of thing. In his spare time at the
office, he used to lie on his stomach on the floor and
see if he could lift himself up with his knuckles. If he
could, then he tried some other way until he found one
that he couldn’t do. Then he would spend the rest of his
lunch hour on his stomach, perfectly happy.
In the evenings in his room he used to lift iron bars,
cannon-balls, heave dumb-bells, and haul himself up to
the ceiling with his teeth. You could hear the thumps
half a mile. He liked it.
He spent half the night slinging himself around his room.
He said it made his brain clear. When he got his brain
perfectly clear, he went to bed and slept. As soon as he
woke, he began clearing it again.
Jiggins is dead. He was, of course, a pioneer, but the
fact that he dumb-belled himself to death at an early
age does not prevent a whole generation of young men from
following in his path.
They are ridden by the Health Mania.
They make themselves a nuisance.
They get up at impossible hours. They go out in silly
little suits and run Marathon heats before breakfast.
They chase around barefoot to get the dew on their feet.
They hunt for ozone. They bother about pepsin. They won’t
eat meat because it has too much nitrogen. They won’t
eat fruit because it hasn’t any. They prefer albumen and
starch and nitrogen to huckleberry pie and doughnuts.
They won’t drink water out of a tap. They won’t eat
sardines out of a can. They won’t use oysters out of a
pail. They won’t drink milk out of a glass. They are
afraid of alcohol in any shape. Yes, sir, afraid. “Cowards.”
And after all their fuss they presently incur some simple
old-fashioned illness and die like anybody else.
Now people of this sort have no chance to attain any
great age. They are on the wrong track.
Listen. Do you want to live to be really old, to enjoy
a grand, green, exuberant, boastful old age and to make
yourself a nuisance to your whole neighbourhood with your
Then cut out all this nonsense. Cut it out. Get up in
the morning at a sensible hour. The time to get up is
when you have to, not before. If your office opens at
eleven, get up at ten-thirty. Take your chance on ozone.
There isn’t any such thing anyway. Or, if there is, you
can buy a Thermos bottle full for five cents, and put it
on a shelf in your cupboard. If your work begins at seven
in the morning, get up at ten minutes to, but don’t be
liar enough to say that you like it. It isn’t exhilarating,
and you know it.
Also, drop all that cold-bath business. You never did it
when you were a boy. Don’t be a fool now. If you must
take a bath (you don’t really need to), take it warm.
The pleasure of getting out of a cold bed and creeping
into a hot bath beats a cold plunge to death. In any
case, stop gassing about your tub and your “shower,” as
if you were the only man who ever washed.
So much for that point.
Next, take the question of germs and bacilli. Don’t be
scared of them. That’s all. That’s the whole thing, and
if you once get on to that you never need to worry again.
If you see a bacilli, walk right up to it, and look it
in the eye. If one flies into your room, strike at it
with your hat or with a towel. Hit it as hard as you can
between the neck and the thorax. It will soon get sick
But as a matter of fact, a bacilli is perfectly quiet
and harmless if you are not afraid of it. Speak to it.
Call out to it to “lie down.” It will understand. I had
a bacilli once, called Fido, that would come and lie at
my feet while I was working. I never knew a more
affectionate companion, and when it was run over by an
automobile, I buried it in the garden with genuine sorrow.
(I admit this is an exaggeration. I don’t really remember
its name; it may have been Robert.)
Understand that it is only a fad of modern medicine to
say that cholera and typhoid and diphtheria are caused
by bacilli and germs; nonsense. Cholera is caused by a
frightful pain in the stomach, and diphtheria is caused
by trying to cure a sore throat.
Now take the question of food.
Eat what you want. Eat lots of it. Yes, eat too much of
it. Eat till you can just stagger across the room with
it and prop it up against a sofa cushion. Eat everything
that you like until you can’t eat any more. The only test
is, can you pay for it? If you can’t pay for it, don’t
eat it. And listen–don’t worry as to whether your food
contains starch, or albumen, or gluten, or nitrogen. If
you are a damn fool enough to want these things, go and
buy them and eat all you want of them. Go to a laundry
and get a bag of starch, and eat your fill of it. Eat
it, and take a good long drink of glue after it, and a
spoonful of Portland cement. That will gluten you, good
If you like nitrogen, go and get a druggist to give you
a canful of it at the soda counter, and let you sip it
with a straw. Only don’t think that you can mix all these
things up with your food. There isn’t any nitrogen or
phosphorus or albumen in ordinary things to eat. In any
decent household all that sort of stuff is washed out in
the kitchen sink before the food is put on the table.
And just one word about fresh air and exercise. Don’t
bother with either of them. Get your room full of good
air, then shut up the windows and keep it. It will keep
for years. Anyway, don’t keep using your lungs all the
time. Let them rest. As for exercise, if you have to take
it, take it and put up with it. But as long as you have
the price of a hack and can hire other people to play
baseball for you and run races and do gymnastics when
you sit in the shade and smoke and watch them–great
heavens, what more do you want?
How to Live to Be 200” by Leacock criticizes health fanatics. How do the author’s writing techniques make readers aware that it is a satire?
Introduction – include “title of work in quotation marks” and the author
— clearly describe your topic and your thesis – this must be an argumentative point that is like the engine driving your essay; the rest of the essay supports the thesis with evidence
— you may have three supporting points but it is not necessary (it’s an effective formula); more important is to have reasoning and/or method (why and/or how literature works)
Body paragraphs – each has a topic sentence that connects to and supports the thesis
— Analysis of the literary text as evidence is crucial, and effective with the use of “quotations from the text.” Explanation of evidence is what makes analysis excel. This is what separates ‘A’ essays from ‘C’ essays (the latter are usually a lot of summary without much argumentation; in short, they are dull and seem pointless).
Conclusion – re-iterates your thesis with new language (no cut and paste please!). Hopefully your argumentative analysis will bring you to a new discovery. You can also use your conclusion to tie up or sort out any loose ends in your essay.
MLA Style – if you know how to use it please do; if you don’t know yet please don’t worry this time. We will cover MLA style documentation before your next assignment.