Geography and the geology of the Galapagos Islands

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  1. Mitosis and Meiosis hands-on simulation – please watch it and Comment

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGVBAHAsjJM

  1. Read and comment

Protect the Oceans with Dr. Sylvia Earle – a dedicated marine biologist

https://www.ted.com/talks/sylvia_earle_s_ted_prize_wish_to_pro tect_our_oceans

  1. Carefully explain the terms genotype and phenotype with good examples (not from the book!). These terms are so important that they must become part of your vocabulary!
  2. Explain in detail complex process of Meiosis I (including crossing over) and its outcome. How does it differ from Mitosis? Provide references.

Respond to the 2 posts below with references A. Minimum 200 words with references

1) What is it about the geography and the geology of the Galapagos Islands that make them an ideal place to stimulate ideas about evolution in someone like Charles Darwin?

The Galapagos Islands are located in a place with minimal human interruptions. This means that the organisms inhabiting these islands are almost in their natural habitat. This makes the place geographically ideal for evolution studies. Additionally, Galapagos Islands geography prevents the inhabitants from breeding with other organisms, especially those from the mainland. For example, these islands are located in a place where warm and varying degrees of cold water meet. This is caused by the Pacific Ocean’s deep waters separating each island, making it hard for inhabitants to move from one island to the other and also from the mainland to the Islands. The Islands are also located on both sides of the Equator and surrounding the Western Hemisphere, giving the area unique environmental conditions enabling the survival of specific organisms in the region.

Apart from that, these Islands are at a meeting point of 3 strong ocean tides which contain warm and cold water. Ideally, these Islands are natural habitat which with minimal human influence. Furthermore, the fact that the Galapagos Islands are surrounded by deep waters of the pacific gives the place two distinct types of organisms, namely sea organisms, and land animals. The Finches birds which were vital during Darwin’s evolution theory are part of the land organisms present in these islands.

On the other hand, the Galapagos Islands were formed as a result of volcanic activities. Different habitat zones were also formed, making Galapagos Islands a vital site to study evolution. Some of the common habitat zones in the Galapagos Islands include the coral reefs zones, highland forests zones, and sand dunes & scrubland zones. These zones are diverse from one island to the other. Different species, such as the exotic locale, home to tortoises, cacti, iguanas, and finches in the Galapagos Islands, attracted Charles Darwin to observe evolution in the area.

(2) Describe the preparation (formal academic studies AND practical experience) of Darwin that allowed him to recognize important characteristics that linked populations of animals he studied in the Galapagos Islands to specific niches in their respective environments.

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Darwin’s theory of evolution through natural selection played an important role in helping Darwin recognize important traits that linked animals’ populations in the Galapagos Islands to the specific niches. Natural selection is also known as survival for the fittest. This theory hypothesizes that organisms can adapt to the changes in the environment, or else they die.  This background knowledge enabled Charles Darwin to observe specific traits in the organisms he studied and comparing them with their natural habitat.

There are 3 main observations that Charles Darwin had made that led to the emergence of the theory of natural selection. One is overproduction, where he observed that species produce more species, but some do not survive to adulthood. The other one is variation, where he noted there are variations between members of the same species. The third is an adaptation that traits that enhance survival are passed from one generation to the next.  With these ideas, Charles Darwin identified specific traits used to prove or discredit his evolution theory through natural selection theory.

3) Contrast Darwin’s ideas about how populations of organisms can change over time with the ideas of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

According to Darwin’s ideas about how populations of organisms can change over time, organisms are born with specific traits. These traits could be favorable to these organisms in different environmental conditions leading to their survival. Darwin believed that within a population, species could be born with diverse traits. For example, in the YouTube Video about Galapagos Finch evolution embedded on the assignment page, some finches had larger beaks while others had smaller beaks. The type and size of beaks determined the survival of finches in adverse drought conditions and prolonged rainy conditions in the Galapagos Islands.

Charles Darwin’s ideas are contrary to what Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed. Lamarck’s evolution ideas were that an organism could develop certain traits during its lifetime. He insisted that organisms acquired their traits based on their environment. For example, animals in cold environments develop thick cutaneous muscles and long hair to survive in such areas. Animals such as giraffe developed their characteristics long necks so that they can reach the top vegetation. His evolution ideas are based on the use and disuse model.

(4) Pick an interesting creature found only in the Galapagos Islands, provide a photo (giving full credit to the source of the photo), and describe the special adaptations of the animal that allow it to survive in the ecosystem where it is naturally found.

Marine Iguana is an interesting creature only found on the Galapagos Islands.Figure 1: Source: Nelson (2013), Shutter Stock, Business InsideThe marine Iguana has different adaptations that enable it to survive in the marine environment, including the specialized nasal glands. These nasal glands are vital for the excretion of excess salt this marine iguana consumes. The excess salt is filtered and expelled through the nasal openings.

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5) Are there any other species in the Galapagos Islands that evolutionary biologists identify as being related to your favorite creature? Whether there are or aren’t, what is thought to be the evolutionary ancestor for the species you picked?

The land Iguana and marine Iguana are related. Biologists think that the marine Iguana evolved from a land Iguana and adapted to the seawater due to the scarcity of vegetation on the land. Thus, the marine Iguana opted for marine seaweed due to the unavailability of nutritious vegetation. The evolutionary ancestor for these two iguanas is thought to be a lizard of the genus Ctenosaura.

Respond to the post Below. B minimum 200 words with references.

  1. B) What is it about the geography and the geology of the Galapagos Islands that make them an ideal place to stimulate ideas about evolution in someone like Charles Darwin?

The Galapagos Islands are located in a place with minimal human interruptions. This means that the organisms inhabiting these islands are almost in their natural habitat. This makes the place geographically ideal for evolution studies. Additionally, Galapagos Islands geography prevents the inhabitants from breeding with other organisms, especially those from the mainland. For example, these islands are located in a place where warm and varying degrees of cold water meet. This is caused by the Pacific Ocean’s deep waters separating each island, making it hard for inhabitants to move from one island to the other and also from the mainland to the Islands. The Islands are also located on both sides of the Equator and surrounding the Western Hemisphere, giving the area unique environmental conditions enabling the survival of specific organisms in the region.

Apart from that, these Islands are at a meeting point of 3 strong ocean tides which contain warm and cold water. Ideally, these Islands are natural habitat which with minimal human influence. Furthermore, the fact that the Galapagos Islands are surrounded by deep waters of the pacific gives the place two distinct types of organisms, namely sea organisms, and land animals. The Finches birds which were vital during Darwin’s evolution theory are part of the land organisms present in these islands.

On the other hand, the Galapagos Islands were formed as a result of volcanic activities. Different habitat zones were also formed, making Galapagos Islands a vital site to study evolution. Some of the common habitat zones in the Galapagos Islands include the coral reefs zones, highland forests zones, and sand dunes & scrubland zones. These zones are diverse from one island to the other. Different species, such as the exotic locale, home to tortoises, cacti, iguanas, and finches in the Galapagos Islands, attracted Charles Darwin to observe evolution in the area.

(2) Describe the preparation (formal academic studies AND practical experience) of Darwin that allowed him to recognize important characteristics that linked populations of animals he studied in the Galapagos Islands to specific niches in their respective environments.

Also Read  Laboratory report 1: scientific method

Darwin’s theory of evolution through natural selection played an important role in helping Darwin recognize important traits that linked animals’ populations in the Galapagos Islands to the specific niches. Natural selection is also known as survival for the fittest. This theory hypothesizes that organisms can adapt to the changes in the environment, or else they die.  This background knowledge enabled Charles Darwin to observe specific traits in the organisms he studied and comparing them with their natural habitat.

There are 3 main observations that Charles Darwin had made that led to the emergence of the theory of natural selection. One is overproduction, where he observed that species produce more species, but some do not survive to adulthood. The other one is variation, where he noted there are variations between members of the same species. The third is an adaptation that traits that enhance survival are passed from one generation to the next.  With these ideas, Charles Darwin identified specific traits used to prove or discredit his evolution theory through natural selection theory.

3) Contrast Darwin’s ideas about how populations of organisms can change over time with the ideas of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

According to Darwin’s ideas about how populations of organisms can change over time, organisms are born with specific traits. These traits could be favorable to these organisms in different environmental conditions leading to their survival. Darwin believed that within a population, species could be born with diverse traits. For example, in the YouTube Video about Galapagos Finch evolution embedded on the assignment page, some finches had larger beaks while others had smaller beaks. The type and size of beaks determined the survival of finches in adverse drought conditions and prolonged rainy conditions in the Galapagos Islands.

Charles Darwin’s ideas are contrary to what Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed. Lamarck’s evolution ideas were that an organism could develop certain traits during its lifetime. He insisted that organisms acquired their traits based on their environment. For example, animals in cold environments develop thick cutaneous muscles and long hair to survive in such areas. Animals such as giraffe developed their characteristics long necks so that they can reach the top vegetation. His evolution ideas are based on the use and disuse model.

(4) Pick an interesting creature found only in the Galapagos Islands, provide a photo (giving full credit to the source of the photo), and describe the special adaptations of the animal that allow it to survive in the ecosystem where it is naturally found.

Marine Iguana is an interesting creature only found on the Galapagos Islands.

 

Last Updated on November 26, 2020 by EssayPro