Respond to two classmates. Responses be minimum of 100 words for each response.
French vs. British colonies
While both the French and British nations’ colonies had successful trade with the Native Americans of the time, how they went about establishing their colonies was quite different. When the French came to settle in America, they limited their colonies to only Catholic settlers (Shi 110). Whereas the British allowed more religious freedom to their settlers. The French emigrated to America by order of the crown and were under “absolute rule” of the French crown. Again, the English settlers were granted more freedom and were allowed to self-govern in their individual colonies, providing they followed English law while doing so (Colonization and Settlement). Due to their strict rules, the French colonies were far fewer in numbers than the English colonies. According to the text, the population of New France in the 1660’s was less than the small British colony of Rhode Island (Shi 110).
The British colonies were larger in numbers and focused more on farming, fishing and trading. The French focused on fur trading as it was more profitable, although their government did encourage more farming efforts. Harsh winters took their toll on the French colonies and those in charge new they needed to rely on help from the Native Americans. The French were successful in establishing strong alliances with the neighboring tribes. They assigned people to learn the languages and ways of the indigenous people and had them marry into their families as well (Shi 110). This effort strengthened the alliance with the Native Americans, but did not do much in the way of growing their colonies.
The British colonies may have started out relatively peaceful with the Native Americans, but as greed took over, British colonies quickly started showing blatant disregard for the indigenous people and their land. Even after the British bested the French during the French and Indian war, the French “handed over” land that did not belong to them as a part of “The Treaty of Paris.” The British king established the Royal Proclamation of 1763, stating that the land to the west of the Appalachians belonged to the Native Americans and the white settlers were not to disturb them. Even though the King sent soldiers to ensure compliance, it was unsuccessful and the settlers continued to steal land without respect for the current inhabitants (Shi 124-125).
COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT
COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585–1763) English, French, and Spanish Colonies: A Comparison. Facts on File Inc., www.granburyisd.org/cms/lib/TX01000552/Centricity/Domain/287/Fact_Sheet_U1_Comparison_of_Eng_Fr_Sp_Col.pdf.
There were many challenges that the American military leaders faced during the Revolutionary war. The first issue was that the Colonies did not have a professional army with the full-time commitment to protect. Most of the American solders were citizen-solders, known as militiamen. These militiamen were “civilians called out from their farms and shops on short notice to defend their local communities… once the danger was past, they disappeared, for there were chores to do at home”(Shi, pg. 159). George Washington, the General of what became know as the Continental army, knew that they could not win a war with only using citizen soldiers. He recognized the need for a full-time professional army, which he came to realize, would be a difficult task to accomplish. Washington began recruiting members whom sometimes arrived only to “claim the $20 in cash and 100 acres of land offered by the Continental Congress to those who would enlist for three years,” (Shi, pg. 166) and “Washington and his officers soon began whipping the Continental army into shape”, (Shi, pg. 159). Another problem with obtaining troops for the Army was that many individuals sided with Britain and did not support the war against them. Eventually Washington realized that the only way to win the war with the military that was available was to outlast Britain and win the war with small surprise attacks. Britain eventually ran out of money and resources due to the dragging on of the war and Washington’s strategies were successful.
Lack of supplies was also a challenge for the American military and lead to the taking of “supplies- grain and livestock – directly from farmers in return for promises of future payment”, (Shi, pg. 159). During the winter months the army suffered from lack of clothing, which lead to extreme suffering. Lack of supplies affected also contributed to the lack of soldiers as many members went home during the winter months. One way the American military solved the issues with lack of supplies as well as troops were the alliances made with other Nations. The American militaries alliances with France, Spain, and the Netherlands was a “crucial development during the war…” as these “nations provided the American revolutionaries desperately needed money, supplies, soldiers, and warships. Ninety percent of the gunpowder used by American soldiers came from Europe,” (Shi, pg. 157). These alliances proved to be successful and helped lead the American military to winning the war.
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