OL Lab 5: Fluid balance, acid base balance and water balance
- Identify the functions and the location of the major fluid compartments of the body
- Explain the regulation of water balance in order to maintain homeostasis
- Identify the proportions of electrolytes found in the plasma, interstitial fluid, and intracellular fluid compartments of the body and state their functions.
- Describe the major electrolytes in the body, and state their role in electrolyte balance.
- Identify the different pH ranges in the body and understand the compensatory mechanism involved to maintain acid-base balance.
1.1 Complete the chart to locate major fluid compartments of the body and state their functions.
1.2 Identify the physiological stimulus and responses that regulate water balance in the body.
1.3 Identify the fluid compartments and the major electrolytes in the body to complete the chart.
1.4 Use the chart provided to complete the table below: (4 points)
|pH range||Biological significance of the pH|
1.5 Identify the changes in the pH and the H+, HCO3- and CO2 concentrations to complete the table below: (5 points)
( *) Indicate as increases or decreases
|H+ *||HCO3- *||CO2 *|
- In respiratory acidosis, what is the stimulus to initiate the respiratory compensation?
- What are the effectors involved in the compensation during respiratory
Part 2: Read the case study and answer the questions in your own words and complete sentences: (8 points)
Sam, a 70-year-old man with chronic renal failure, was in for a routine visit at the hospital. Progressive destruction of nephrons leads to chronic renal failure. Sam’s blood work indicated low blood pH taken and potassium levels were outside of the normal range. Sam’s estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 15 mL/min with a high respiratory rate of 20 breaths per minute.
- What is the normal range for blood potassium concentration?
- From which part of the nephron is the majority of excess potassium normally excreted?
- Based on your observations, will Sam’s potassium levels be high, normal, or low?
- What are the pH buffers found in the urine?
- How are H+ ions transported into the tubular fluid of the kidney?
- In what form are H+ ions excreted in the urine?
- Why could be the reason for Sam’s low pH?
- Why would Sam have an increase in respiratory rate? How does the increase in respiratory rate help?
|Part 1||Complete 1.1 to 1.5||22|
|Part 2||Case Study- Answer all the questions||8|
|Total||Complete all lab activities||30|