Child Health and Nutrition

Child Health and Nutrition Test
Chapters 1-6
Summer 2018

Chapters 1: Introduction to Nutrition

1. What Is Nutrition?
a) Substances found is food that must be supplied to the body
b) Evidenced-based practice of food, nutrition and well-being
c) The science of food and how it is used by the body

2. Name and explain three (3) factors that influence a person food and nutrition intake.

3. Explain how emotional eating can be displayed in children.

4. Name the six (6) basic nutrients that the body requires. Which nutrients provide the body calories/energy? How much?

Fill in the blank:

There are three types of carbohydrates: __________________________, ___________________, and ____________________________. Monosaccharides are known as ____________________________. There are three of them, which are __________________________, ______________________, and ________________________. Disaccharides contain _________________________________________. These sugars are ______________________, ______________________ and ______________________. In other words, Glucose plus _________________ make Sucrose, known as _____________________. Glucose plus Glucose make ___________________ known as ____________________. And, ______________ plus ____________________ makes Lactose, which is __________________. Polysaccharides are _________________________ made up of many units of sugar linked. List two examples: _____________________ and _______________________.

Did you know there are two types of fiber? They are ______________________ and ___________________. _________________ helps move material through the intestinal tract through a process called peristalsis; and ____________________ acts like a gel. It provides bulk to the stools and many affect the development of certain diseases. Adults are expected to get _______________ grams of fiber per day.

5. Calculate these young children fiber intake:
6 years old girl: _____________
8 years old boy: _____________
5 years old girl: _____________
1 years old boy: ___________

6. What age should a child have raw honey?

7. Calculate the carbohydrate and protein needs of the following children:
A newborn infant (0 years old), weighs 8lbs who consumes 500kcal per day, carb needs of 45%

8. . To reduce fat intake, what would you recommend an individual who eats:
A croissant for breakfast?
Ice cream for dessert?
Ranch salad dressing?

9. Vitamin Deficiencies:
Rickets is caused by lack of ___________________ in the diet.
__________________ in excessive amounts acts as anticoagulant and increase the risk of bleeding problems for those taking medications such as heparin or warfarins.
___________________ causes scurvy and gum bleeding

____________ and ___________ bind to calcium and prevent calcium absorption in the body.
What is the best source of calcium? ______________________
Anemia is caused by a lack of ____________________. _____________ is enhanced by __________________ and the presence of Vitamin ____________.
It is not recommended that you take an iron supplemental unless prescribed by a _________________.
Goiters are caused by a lack of ___________________________. You can get iodine from ___________________.
__________________causes poor appetite, delayed healing and cuts, decreased taste and smell, hair loss, susceptibility to infection, and poor growth in children. Food sources (name two): ___________________ and ________________
Keshan disease is a lack of __________________ in the diet.

10. Calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI). What is your BMI Interpretation and risk?

11. Android obesity is commonly found in ____________________. This body fat is stored in the ________________.

12. Gynoid obesity is commonly found in _______________. This body fat is stored in the ______________________________.

Chapter 2: Food for Health

Based on a 2,000 Kcal Diet:
How many servings of vegetables should an individual have? ________________
How many servings of fruits?
What about Grains?, and at least __________ should be whole grains
When it comes to dairy, children ages 2-3 should have_______________? What about ages 4-8 _________________. How about 9 years old and older?_____________________
How many servings of protein? __________________. People should select ________ meats, seafood, legumes and nuts to reduce fat.
How many teaspoon of oil is recommended?

1. How well do you know your plate? Fill in the food group on the plate.

2. Create a well-balanced breakfast that you will give to a 5 years old child with nut and diary allergies.

3. Calculate the daily energy requirement for the following:
10 lbs infant:

60lbs 7-years old child:

4. Physical Activity
It is recommended that young children participate in _____________ minutes of physical activity; and spend no more than ______________ hours each day watching television, playing electronic games, or using the computer.
However, exercise program at an early age put infants and young children in appropriate learning situation as well as expose them to the risk of physical and/or psychological damage. True or False.
As a teacher, how can promoting physical activity in children be beneficial? Name two ways:

5. Should a child be placed on a diet? Yes or No
6. An obese child younger than 2 years should be referred to a __________________________ program for appropriate treatment.
7. As a teacher, name one way you can help an overweight/obese child lose weight?

7a. Iron Deficiency
Children with iron deficiency will have ___________________________ and __________________________.
As a teacher, what recommendation you give to a parent who has a young child who is iron-deficient?

7b. Lead Poisoning
Lead poisoning can damage a young child’s developing _______________, causing _______________ and ________________ disabilities.
As a teacher, provide three recommendations you would give to a parent to prevent his/her child from being exposed to lead?

Define Asthma:

Provide two ways you would coordinate care for a child who is living with asthma?

Food Allergies
Define Food Allergies:

Provide one recommendation you would offer to avoid a child of having an allergic reaction to a specific protein in a food.

List two ways you can exemplify healthy eating habits in your classroom

Chapter 3: Birth to 12 months

Stages of Growth and Physical Development:

Please circle the correct answer(s).
4-6 months:
– Chewing become more defined
– Grab at food when hungry
– Play peek a boo
– Begin cruising, crawling and walking
7-9 months:
– Muscles grow stronger and are able to sit up straight
– Explore foods with hands and mouth
– Sit erect
– Ready to use spoon
9-12 months
– Ready to participate in family meals
– Transfer objects from one hand to the other
– Grab at food when hungry
– Free hand movement

Name three ways to assess the health of babies/infants:
How can you assess the dietary intake of:

Breastfed babies:

Formula Fed babies:

Did you know that during the first trimester a woman should only consume an additional of _______calories per day? Uh-hum, and during her second trimester, she should only consume________ calories per day, and ________ calories per day during her last trimester. I’m just saying, some pregnant women can eat just way too much!
For an underweight pregnant woman, what foods would you encourage her to eat more of:

We all know the “breast is best,” right? Tell me three benefits of breastfeeding!

Mothers should strive to keep _________worth of unfrozen, fresh milk. ___________ worth of __________milk should be kept for a back-up supply. Breast milk should be kept in a __________ bag and __________properly. Do not put __________on the bottle because they interfere with an __________seal. You should only recommend using _____________ bottles, because plastic bottles may cause contamination during heating of milk. ___________ breast milk can potentially last between ______ to _______ months in a properly cooled freezer. When using breast milk, use the _________first. Thaw under_________ running water, and use within 24 hours.

Breast fed babies surely can eat! Breastfed babies want to be nurse ______ to ______ times in a day. They produce about 6 to ______ wet-soaked diapers and several ________ per day. By the way, their stools have a very _________ odor and have a _______ texture, somewhat like cottage cheese or pea soup. I didn’t know breast milk is a _________ laxative. Did you know that? No I did not.

True of False Questions:
1. Never seek mother’s approval to use of a formula supplement
2. Formula supplementation decreases breastfeeding duration and impairs mineral absorption from breast milk.
3. Weaning a baby from breast milk is up to the caregiver or physician.
4. Infants that are weaned before 1-year-old, should be given iron-fortified milk.
5. Breast milk has only 50 nutrients that are identified.

Name two breast milk substitutes? Explain why these substitutes are recommended or not.
Infant Feeding Policy
Feeding policies should cover ________ and ___________, and address the following issues: Name only two of them:
True or False Questions: Please explain your answer.
1. Bottles should be warmed in the microwave?

2. Place cleaned bottles and nipples only in a dishwasher or boiled for 15 minutes prior to filling.

3. Use cold tap water to prevent lead exposure:

4. It is not okay to over-dilute formula or over concentrating formula.

5. It is recommended to add sweeteners to the formula bottle.

Promoting Healthful Eating Behaviors
Bottle Feeding:
Feed the bottle like a ____________and begin by using a close supportive hold and focusing attention on the baby. Offer hungry babies their bottle by lightly _________________ with the ___________ and waiting for them to open up their mouth and __________ you to put in the nipple. DO NOT _________ any uninvited food past their lips. ________jiggle the bottle or _________ it in the mouth. Be_________ and allow babies to the lead the way.

Breast fed infants take __________ amounts of food than formula fed babies. So, don’t expect them to finish an 8 ounce bottle. Breast milk is also precious, ________________ !
Force _______________potentially lay the foundation for ____________ eating behaviors or________.

Feeding Sensitive Babies
You should feed them in a smooth _______________ way. Avoid ____________ movement or techniques for keeping the baby awake such as tickling the feet, because!
Sensitive babies are babies who are ___________ or _______________.

How to Read a Baby Like a Book:
Please name the correct cues that a baby displays during hunger or being full.
1. If arm gently tugged away from body, it will spring back to flexed position.
2. Turns head away from nipple.
3. Relaxed, sleepy state, falls away from body.
4. Fusses, cries and arches back.
5. Awake and alert.
6. Scooting.
7. Turning from side to side.
Solid Foods
Feeding the infant cereal will not ___________ sleeping through the night or somehow make a child grow faster. First foods should include ___________ and _________________. __________ is easy to digest. Vitamin ______ enhances _____________

Don’t use juice to __________the cereal because __________reduces the protein content of the total diet.
At _______to _______ months, parents can introduce strained baby meats for an excellent iron source. At 7-10 months, parents can give a child small pieced or strips or bread, crackers, pita bread, tortillas, or flat breads; wheat can be introduced to non-allergic infants. At ____________ months, parents can give a child strained single-ingredients i.e. vegetables and fruits. At _________ months, a child starts on iron and vitamin C fortified infant cereals. At ____________ months, you can add tender chopped meats to a child’s diet.

What is a “happy spitter”?

Chapter 4: The Toddler

1. Height is measured using a stadiometer at the age of ___________.
2. Weight is measured using a _____________________________ scale with _________________________ weights. The following steps should be taken:


3. Head circumference is an _____________ assessment of brain growth. From ages 2 to 3 year old, the brain should grow _____ cm per year.

Did you know _____________________________ or underlying medical conditions causing inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of nutrients may cause a child to __________________________________. This is when the growth patterns fall below reference standard for weight and height during the first 3 years. You can determine the abnormalities in child’s growth pattern by: if a child ___________ for _________ is _______________ or ___________________ two or more percentiles. Or, that the child weight for height ____________ below the 5th percentile. However, before making a referral to the doctor, consider the following: _____________________, ____________________ and _____________________________________ of biological parents. Name two more reasons why a child may be considered failure to thrive: ___________________________ and _____________________________.

4. Circle common measurement errors:

a. Childhood caries
b. Limited excessive fruit juice
c. Error in human measuring errors
d. Food Recall
e. Recent over or under consumption of Food Jonezi
f. Faculty measuring equipment

Toddlers have an increased ______________ and _____________skills. Toddlers have fine muscle control develops __________________________________, ____________________________ and attempting to eat an ice cream cone. Toddlers are curious! Every new object must be handled and __________________, probably with mouth as well as the hands. The cutest thing about toddlers is there ______erupts!
The craziest thing about toddlers is they can go from being a cooperative child who is a helper to the child who responds with only, _______ , _______. ________. Toddlers have a need to become ______________ and attempt to ________________________ tasks, which may cause _______________ and feelings of shame and doubt. Name two negative behaviors in toddlers: ______________________________ and _____________________________. However, the best ways to avoid confrontation with a toddler is to ______________ them.

What is the energy requirement for an active 3 -year toddler: Girls calories need are__________________ per day; and boys calories need are ________________ per day. The daily fat intake for toddlers is ___________ to _________ of total calories. Vegan toddlers will need added sources of fat such as: ________________, ground seeds, _________________ , olives, ___________ and dried fruits. The daily protein recommendations are__________ to ___________ of total calories; the daily carbohydrate recommendations are _______________________. Non-vegetarian/vegan toddlers can drink ________ of milk and ______ ounces of meat to meet their daily protein recommendations. As for vegan toddlers, eating ________ cup of beans provides the daily protein recommendations.

What are the significant nutrients?

Toddlers should limit excessive ______________________.

What are some good sources of calcium?

What are some good sources of iron?

Care Provider’s Role:

Name three reasons why a child won’t eat.




Feeding Disorders: When does a picky eater become a child with a feeding disorder?

The child is _________________ to eat ________________ calories and ________________ to maintain _______________ and sustain appropriate _______________________.

However, food should be ___________ in small portions, and less desired foods can be used as ________________ or may be offered ______________. Use the general rule: _____________ tablespoon per year of age for the serving size for cooked foods. Foods should be ______________ finely to prevent _______________. ______________ should be given in a small cup. Meal service should be expected to take at least __________ minutes.

Chapter 5: The Preschooler
1. A 4 years old child weight will increase ___________ times as much as birth.

2. Please calculate a child’s BMI who is 88 pounds and 3ft.

3. Please interpret what this child BMI means. For example, this child weight for height is considered underweight, overweight or obese.

4. Name two traits that children with a high BMI have in common.

5. If a preschool child gain or lose a pound or two less than a month, you should look for the following: Name only two results that may cause faulty data:

6. And, if this child continues to lose weight or have a significant weight change, you should immediately speak with the___________________ about their children’s physical or eating behavior.

7. When it comes to preschoolers’ development skills, 3 to 4 years will be able to: (Name two skills)

8. Please calculate the fat and protein requirement for the following children.

Carbohydrate: 50%
Protein: 25%
Fat: 25%

A 6 years old active boy who is diabetic and caloric intake is 1800kcal. He eats 6 meals per day.

A 4 years old sedentary girl who is caloric intake is 1600kcal.

1. What is the difference between “Natural” and “Organic”?

2. Children on vegetarian diets will need a regular source of _________________ and _________________. Foods rich in ________, ____________, and ____________ should be emphasized.

3. Is a vegetarian diet safe for children? Yes or No. Explain your answer:

4. Does sugar causes hyperactivity? Yes or No. Explain your answer:

5. Preschoolers need __________ minutes of daily physical activities.

6. Name two ways to promote healthful eating behaviors in your center:

Spreading Healthful Messages!

Did you know July is National Ice Cream Month! Please send a simple, yet fun nutrition tip on how to enjoy your favorite ice cream in a healthier way usingone of your social media platforms: FaceBook, Twitter or Instagram. If you do not have any of these platforms, please write a nutrition message only using 140 letter (characters). Include a link from a reliable resource to refer people for more healthful information.(Please take a screen shot of this message and staple it to your test. Do not include any names or comments from your friend list).

U will b graded on ur creativity!

Please answer all questions and submit at the beginning of class.

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