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Approaches to Performance Management

Explain how the expected results of a performance management system designed with a strong quality orientation can impact employee performance.

An approach to performance management is an organization’s system for judging how well employees perform their jobs and linking this assessment to rewards. Some common approaches are piece-rate pay, merit pay, and objective review. A quality orientation is a mindset that seeks to maximize quality in all aspects of an organization’s functioning. Quality orientation can enhance performance management because it instills a strong emphasis on doing a good job and creating a climate in which employees do not fear negative consequences from the assessment process (Gerhart et al., 2021). Furthermore, it creates conditions that allow employees to improve their performance by making changes to meet the organization’s standards.

A quality orientation enhances employee performance by stressing the need for continuous improvement, which leads to a better understanding of the products or services provided by an organization. The rationale behind a quality orientation is that an organization has no inherent right to exist, and thus it must continually prove its value to customers and other interested parties (Gerhart et al., 2021).

In addition, a quality orientation can increase employee performance by stressing the ramifications of poor performance. By clearly making employees aware of the consequences for poor performance, an organization can increase the number of employees who strive for excellence or at least meet minimal standards (Gerhart et al., 2021). A quality orientation also can improve employee performance by emphasizing teamwork and cooperation.

A quality orientation is a mindset that seeks to maximize quality in all aspects of an organization’s functioning. A strong quality orientation can enhance employee performance by stressing the need for continuous improvement, which leads to a better understanding of the products or services provided by an organization. In addition, a quality orientation can increase employee performance by stressing the ramifications of poor performance.

An approach to performance management is an organization’s system for judging how well employees perform their jobs and linking this assessment to rewards. Some common approaches are piece-rate pay, merit pay, and objective review. A quality orientation is a mindset that seeks to maximize quality in all aspects of an organization’s functioning (Gerhart et al., 2021). Quality orientation can enhance performance management because it instills a strong emphasis on doing a good job and creating a climate in which employees do not fear negative consequences from the assessment process. Furthermore, it creates conditions that allow employees to improve their performance by making changes to meet the organization’s standards.

Describe the employees’ and companies’ responsibilities in each step of the career management process.

For the most part, employees are responsible for their own careers. In North America and Western Europe, workplaces have begun to shift roles from the once solely employee-centric model to a more balanced one in which corporations and employees work together as equal partners on career management (Arar, 2018). The job rotation concept, in particular, has gained attention as an effective way for organizations to attract and retain talent by promoting career development through specialized tasks assigned on a rotational basis. Job rotation may be considered a “best practice” for organizations seeking to improve their employee engagement, motivation and retention.

At the first step of the career management process, personal and work goals are established. These goal-setting activities include self-assessment of one’s skills and interests, as well as a broad assessment of what is required to achieve these goals, with an emphasis on logical tradeoffs between multiple potential paths to achieve them. These abilities can be improved through practice, education and enrichment (Arar, 2018).

“The primary means for career advancement effectively comes from actively seeking out opportunities to learn about new things and shifting one’s focus toward new tasks and pursuits. The ability to acquire new skills is the primary propellant of career growth.”

“In order to improve their careers, employees must demonstrate proficiency at a new task and find ways to change the nature of that task in order to make them more attractive . This leads to the important role of self-motivation in the career management process. A person’s motivation for working is fundamentally influenced by their perceptions about the extent and urgency associated with achieving personal goals, but external factors also play an important role (Arar, 2018).

Discuss the probable causes of a glass ceiling. What impact does a glass ceiling have on employee morale?

In society, how we see leadership is often influenced by gender and/or ethnic biases. Gender bias would be an example of something that may cause a glass ceiling to exist. Race bias is another common example. So, what does this look like in society?

In the 1940s and 1950s white men were usually in managerial positions or as “the boss.” While white women were often secretaries or assistants, they did not have many opportunities to move up the ladder. This is called a glass ceiling because they could not advance past certain levels (García Goldar, 2020). Eventually the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 11246, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 were passed which prohibited discrimination and gave women and minorities opportunities for upward mobility. These changes meant that previously excluded individuals would now have “a fighting chance” to be considered for jobs and roles that they were not previously considered for because of their gender or race.

The problem was that most companies weren’t ready for it, so many times women and minorities weren’t hired even when they had the skills or knowledge. This didn’t give them the experience to succeed. Some companies even resorted to giving white and male applicants better tests which lead to them being hired over the applicants of color. This was also usually done without regard or informed consent of both parties (García Goldar, 2020).

The glass ceiling has been a big issue in business. Many women and minorities are stuck being underpaid and over worked by their employers because they think they are not capable of the jobs that they would be hired for.

There are also cultural biases that cause the glass ceiling to exist. Some of these are out of ignorance and social pressure. For example, people who immigrate to a new country where they don’t know any English or where they have been kept out of certain jobs will sometimes be treated as less than other people, which will create racial or gender biases because those people won’t receive a good job or pay, which will make them want to accept those biases such as when their rights were taken away.

Emotional and mental impacts on employees when they cannot progress due to a glass ceiling. In addition to losing out on opportunities for advancement, many also lose satisfaction and start holding grudges against their employers (García Goldar, 2020). All of these translate into reduced employee morale, which can in turn negatively affect the organization’s performance. A glass ceiling is a barrier that limits the upward mobility of employees who are viewed as being of a particular group. It is a term used to describe an invisible barrier that prevents women and people of color from taking on leadership positions in organizations because they lack any other factors (such as academic qualifications and competence) that are expected to be present in leaders.

The actual existence of this glass ceiling is hotly debated. However, it is clear that women have consistently lagged behind men in terms of representation in high-level management and executive level positions. Despite the fact that the gender gap for this kind of position has always been small at most firms, by 2003, it had reached a crisis level. A study conducted by Catalyst, a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing women in business, showed that women’s representation in executive roles dropped from 14% in 1993 to 8% in 2000. According to this study, women who occupy these positions report less job satisfaction than men and are also more likely to leave. Nevertheless, there is a wide range of viewpoints on the glass ceiling topic (García Goldar, 2020).

Many companies employ remedial measures to address the issue of gender imbalance in managerial positions. Promotions and development programs designed to encourage women’s advancement are markedly varied and are often framed in terms of “women’s advancement initiatives” (WACI). The most common approaches include improved communication, flexibility in work scheduling and part-time employment, as well as compensatory services such as child care arrangements.

Although positive discrimination towards women may be ineffective in addressing the issue of a glass ceiling, it is important to understand the perspective of female employees. For example, in some cases, men are not hired due to a desire by employers to increase “gender diversity”. On the other hand, it may be that women who do break through the glass ceiling are more likely than men to remain in these roles for a longer period of time and subsequently experience career burnout.

Discuss succession planning. How does it help organizations?

A succession plan should be a part of every organization’s strategic planning process. An organization’s success is dependent on its leaders, so that when a leader leaves or retires, an organization is not left scrambling and unsure of who will take over. A well-thought-out succession plan will ensure continuity in leadership and contribute to the future success of the organization (Atwood, 2020). When an organization’s leader leaves, the most important question to ask is what is that leader going to do? An ideal answer would include a listing of duties, with a succession plan explaining who will take over various duties after that person is gone.

A succession plan can be executed in different ways. An executive may want each of his or her top-level managers to outline the next stage in their careers. For example, an elementary-school teacher may want to know whether or not he or she should consider taking a job at a university full-time. A business administrator may want to know how he or she can move into a different field. A group may want to start with specific tasks, such as employee development training, and then work outward in terms of who oversees that particular responsibility (Atwood, 2020).

The succession plan itself must be clear and detailed. If the succession plan is not clear and specific, it will not be effective in any way. Upper-level managers must be able to clearly see what the steps are on their way up the corporate ladder. An organization’s guidelines should not only outline how to move up in rank, but should also mention what each position entails. For example, one company’s guidelines explain that a sales representative is responsible for calling on accounts, making sales and establishing customer relationships. This information is valuable for individuals looking to move into a different field; it helps them get a clear idea of what the position demands.

The first step in an effective succession plan is to establish what positions need to be filled. A position needs to be previously empty or open before it can be filled.

It is important to clearly define the job that needs filling. The goals of the position should be set out and incumbents should understand how their performance will affect their chances at moving into a different position or advancing within the company as a whole (Atwood, 2020). Once a position has been defined, it can now be advertised for and potential candidates can apply for it.

The next step in the succession planning process is to determine who the top candidates are. The key to a successful succession plan is finding the right person for the job, even if that person is not currently employed at the company. The company may want to seek out candidates with previous experience in their field that would help them progress into their new position (Atwood, 2020). Alternatively, they may want to fill a position by offering an entry-level job and encouraging people with potential to apply for it.

After the company has identified a pool of top candidates, they then need to interview them and narrow the field of applicants down. This is a very important part of succession planning. The company is looking for someone who will be able to step into their new position and be successful doing it, so they need to screen potential candidates carefully.

Define the employment-at-will doctrine and a wrongful discharge suit. Explain how an employee can file a wrongful discharge suit if the company is an employment-at-will company.

Employers must act at all times in good faith, with reasonable care not to violate any rights of the employee or other persons. Employers may hire or fire employees without violating this obligation. The employment relationship is terminable at the will of either party. Employment at will has been the rule in American law since the early days of the republic (Estlund, 2022).

In most states, raises and bonuses count as part of an employee’s salary, so employers may not deduct these from the final paycheck without good cause unrelated to an employee’s misconduct. An exception applies when a written contract specifies that a raise or bonus is not subject to withholding for any purpose. (Standard Office Supply Co., Inc. v. Johnson, 418 N.W.2d 759 (Minn. 1988).)

When a person is fired for refusing to commit an illegal act, the employer has probably broken the law and is not protected by employment at will. An employee who refuses such a request can sue for wrongful discharge. An employer who fires an employee for refusing to commit an illegal act can argue that the employee’s termination was for legitimate, non-wrongdoing reasons (Estlund, 2022).

The employment-at-will doctrine is very different than other types of employee termination. The doctrine states that service in the United States is a federal contract between the employer and the employee and therefore, any abuse or termination by the employer without just cause or cause can be subject to a wrongful discharge suit. This can be a lawsuit filed by the employee or former employee against the employer for wrongful termination. The employer cannot terminate an individual based on:
Consideration of race, color and sex are illegal under Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964 and possibly, the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Discrimination on the basis of religion is illegal under Title VII.

An employer cannot discharge or discriminate against an employee if there is a contract with the company and the terms of the contract do not allow for such action (Estlund, 2022). However, if an employee is employed at-will, this means that they have no contractual rights to a job or any other benefits of employment. It’s important to note that employees still have duties towards employers.

To understand how one can be wrongfully discharged in this situation, it’s necessary to first understand what wrongful termination means in general. One can be wrongfully terminated by being fired, quitting or laying off.

Wrongful termination can occur as a result of a form of discrimination such as:

If an employee is terminated because of their race, age, gender, disability, national origin or any other protected class in the U.S., an unlawful discharge lawsuit may be filed against the employer. There are many important legal aspects of employment-at-will. An employment lawyer can help an employee understand the law and defenses, and if there is a dispute with their employer, help them figure out how to proceed. For more information about wrongful termination remedies and other employment law issues contact an employment lawyer in San Antonio or Austin.

References

Gerhart, B., Wright, P. M., Noe, R. A., & Hollenbeck, J. R. (2021). Human Resource Management Gaining A Competitive Advantage 12e. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Arar, T., & Öneren, M. (2018). Role of talent management in career development of generation Z: A case study of a telecommunication firm. International Academic Journal of Social Sciences5(1), 28-44.

García Goldar, M. (2020). The glass ceiling at the highest levels of the Spanish judiciary. International Journal of the Legal Profession27(2), 189-202.

Atwood, C. (2020). Succession planning basics. American Society for Training and Development.

Estlund, C. (2022). Wrongful discharge law in the land of employment-at-will: A US perspective on unjust dismissal. King’s Law Journal, 1-20.

Last Updated on November 22, 2022

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