1. For each DB question please follow the following format: “Name – DB 1 responses” (eg. Nicholas DeJesse – DB 1…..)
2. Research and discuss the origin of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), its mission and agency vision. Differentiate the enforcement and compliance assistance elements of the Agency.
3. Research and discuss the origin of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), its mission, and agency vision. Define its jurisdictional authority and enforcement elements.
4. Review Executive Order 13650. List and discuss 3 highlights of the executive order focusing on community/environmental health and safety. In addition, discuss Federal government collaboration, integration, and compliance and outreach efforts.
5. Research and review 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. Define and discuss its origin, purpose, scope, and goals of the standard.
6. Begin to create a skeleton of the “eight step process” with incident command principles in anticipation of the week 2 case study creation.
Occupational safety and health administration is an agency under United States labor department. It was founded in 1970 by president Richard Nixon when he signed the occupational and health Act into law. The agency is meant to promote conductive and healthy working environment for workers. The mission of the agency was and still is to assure safe and health working conditions for the United States working men and women. Its sets and enforces standards in addition to providing training, education, and outreach. The vision is to make American workplaces safest in the world through the elimination of injuries, illnesses, and deaths at the workplace (Jackson, 1991). The OSHA compliance element offers assistance to the employers to comply with OSHA requirements. The assistance is through offering guidelines, procedures and documents to offer training. On the other hand, the enforcement element ensures that the OSHA standards are followed by the employers.
Environmental protection agency is an independent agency in the United States that was formed in 1970 by president Richard Nixon through an executive order. The agency mission is to protect human and environmental health. The vision for EPA is to achieve a clean, healthy and protected environment that supports a sustainable society and environment. The EPA jurisdiction ranges from legal to the regional authorities. The enforcement elements of the environmental protection agency involve requiring total compliance with various Acts aimed at regulating industrial wastes and water contamination and use. Enforcement can involve warnings fines for non-compliance and sometimes banning of some organizations for non-compliance.
The executive order number 13650 was issued by President Obama in the wake of raising incidences in chemical facilities. It was signed in 2013 and was meant to improve chemical facility safety and security. The order is aimed at reducing risks associated with hazardous chemical incidences to factory owners, machine operators, workers and the community within which the chemical plant is found. The executive order highlights focusing on community and environmental health and safety include strengthening community planning and preparedness, enhance coordination of federal operations and improvement of policies and regulations. The federal government brings together various groups from different federal agencies and departments to work together to develop policies and plans for ensuring chemical safety and security (Reshaping Health and Safety Enforcement: Institutionalising Impunity, n.d.).
The OSHA standard 29 1910.119 concerns process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals. The main purpose is preventing or minimizing consequences of the catastrophic release of toxic, explosive, reactive and flammable chemicals. The standards outlined here in this Act apply to all industries except oil and gas exploration as well as facilities that are not occupied. It outlines workers responsibilities as well as responsibilities for employees, contractors, and owners (Preparing for Process Safety Management Change, 2016).
Reshaping Health and Safety Enforcement: Institutionalising Impunity. (n.d.). Making Employment Rights Effective : Issues of Enforcement and Compliance. doi:10.5040/9781472566188.ch-005
Jackson, R. (1991). An Overview of the OSHA-Proposed Standard for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals With Emphasis on Its Implementation. Proceedings of SPE Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Conference. doi:10.2523/23267-ms
Preparing for Process Safety Management Change. (2016). Guidelines for Implementing Process Safety Management,37-48. doi:10.1002/9781119243731.ch3
Question 1. Research and discuss the origin of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, its mission and agency vision. Differentiate the enforcement and compliance assistance elements of the Agency
The OSHA as an agency of the United States Labour Department was formed on April 28, 1971, by the Congress under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, which was signed into law on December 29, 1970, by President Richard M. Nixon (Leeth, 2012). OSHA’s core mission is to ensure that working conditions for women and men are healthy and safe by providing education, training, assistance and outreach and by forming and enforcing standards. Its vision is to ensure workplaces in America are the safest worldwide. The regulatory element of this agency vests the provision of safe and healthy employee workplace on the employer whereas the compliance element requires employers to abide by the General Duty Clause of the Act and all OSHA standards.
2. Research and discuss the origin of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), its mission, and agency vision. Define its jurisdictional authority and enforcement elements.
EPA was formed on December 2, 1970, by President Richard Nixon in the United States due to heightened public concerns on environmental pollution (Ringquist, 2016). Its mission is to protect and improve both human and ecological health from the harmful effects of pollution and radiation. EPA’s vision is to ensure the environment is well protected, clean and healthy to ensure sustainability of the economy and the society. The agency’s jurisdictional authority involves working with different levels of government and industries to protect air and water as laid down under the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act respectively. EPA’s enforcement elements comprise of sanctions, fines and it also has powers to issue regulations.
3. Review Executive Order 13650. List and discuss 3 highlights of the executive order focusing on community/environmental health and safety. In addition, discuss Federal government collaboration, integration, and compliance and outreach efforts.
President Obama issued an Executive Order 13650 on August 1, 2013, to respond to incidents of a catastrophic chemical facility in the United States. The focus of the EO was to improve Chemical Facility Security, and Safety thus reduces hazardous chemical risk incidents to workers, operators and the community at large (Jennings & Matthiessen, 2015). Key highlights of the EO included; strengthening community preparedness and planning. Communities should be informed on how to assess risks associated with hazardous chemicals, how these chemicals are stored and used to be prepared for any eventualities which may arise (Noll, Hildebrand, Schnepp, & Rudner, 2012). Enhancement of Federal Operational Coordination is another notable highlight. An integrated effort which ensures efficient and effective execution of communication and coordination of the EO requires the cooperation of government agencies, organisations and the communities. Lastly, working with stakeholders to determine the best practices is equally essential. The inclusion of Community partners in most of the EO efforts ensures an all-inclusive representation of people’s perspectives.
The Federal Government developed an action plan to improve on the security and safety of chemical facilities which included; improved coordination of local and state partners, modernisation of standards, policies and regulations, enhanced Federal agency information sharing and coordination and stakeholders’ involvement in the identification of best practices (Stilp & Bevelacqua, 1997). This government was to work in collaboration with the Labour Department, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Homeland Security and other agencies to accomplish the goals above.
4. Research and review 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. Define and discuss its origin, purpose, scope, and goals of the standard.
The OSHA issued 29 CFR 1910.119 as a safety regulation to help ensure healthy and safe workplaces (Haling, 2015). This is a process that contains requirements for the management of risks when using hazardous chemicals. It was enacted in 1992 as OSHA’s first significant safety regulation against catastrophic chemical incidents. It contains requirements for minimisation or prevention of effects of the devastating release of flammable, toxic, explosive or reactive chemicals which may cause destructions (Henry, 1999). The PSM standard scope comprises of all industries except gas or oil well drilling, retail facilities, unoccupied remote facilities and servicing operations. Additionally, this standard has some goals which include prevention of catastrophic release, analysis and understanding of process risks and hazards, manage risks and continual learning from experiences through investigations, auditing and training.
Haling, C. (2015). Combating Chemical Disasters: Three Steps for Safety. Professional Safety, 60(12), 50.
Henry, T. V. (1999). Decontamination for Hazardous Materials Emergencies. Delmar Publishers.
Jennings, K., & Matthiessen, C. (2015). Update: EPA actions—chemical safety and security Executive Order.Process Safety Progress, 34(2), 196-198.
Leeth, J. (2012).OSHA’s Role in Promoting Occupational Safety and Health. Foundations and Trends in Microeconomics: Vol. 7: No. 4, pp. 267-353.
Noll, G. G., Hildebrand, M. S., Schnepp, R., & Rudner, G. (2012). Hazardous materials: Managing the incident. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Obama, B. (2013). Executive order—improving chemical facility safety and security. Executive Order 13650.
Ringquist, E. J. (2016). Environmental Protection at the State Level: Politics and Progress in Controlling Pollution: Politics and Progress in Controlling Pollution. Routledge.
Stilp, R. H., & Bevelacqua, A. S. (1997). Emergency medical response to hazardous materials incidents. Delmar Publishers.
1) After reading an emergency operations plan of your choosing identify and list five (5) instances where special needs populations are included in the planning process and another five (5) where they have been overlooked.
2) Utilizing the lists generated above, start thinking about the groups within the community that could be called upon to assist with including different segments of the special needs population. What resources do they possess? What conflicts may arise?
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Emergency operations plans offer a framework through which emergency management is carried out. It outlines risks facing a particular area, hazards and also develops ways in which such risks can be mitigated. Special populations are becoming an increasingly becoming a part of emergency management plans. There is a need to take care of such special populations because they are likely to be affected more by disasters because of their incapability to respond quickly. For purposes of this assignment, I have read the Teton county town of Jackson emergency operations plan.
The five incidences in which special needs population are included in the planning process include
a.It proposes development and training of special needs groups and targeted outreach for people with special needs
b.It talks about preparing people with special needs for incidences before the incidences can happen
c.It also talks about giving people with disability priority whenever the evacuation is taking place
d.The emergency operations plan also talks about taking care of people with special needs such as medical attention and special diet
e.The EOP is also talking about mechanisms for helping people with special needs. For example, you need to seek their permission before you help them.
Instances where the EOP has overlooked people with special needs
a.There are no special alert systems developed. For instance, there is no way deaf people or blind people can be effectively be notified of a disaster.
b.There is no mention of special needs population input. I think their input should have been sought when doing the emergency management plan
c.In sheltering there is no mention of special structures for people with special needs
d.Transportation of affected people does not talk about taking care of people with special needs
e.Finally, there is no express identification of people with special needs within the town. For example, it could have talked about deaf, old people, children and people with pre-existing disease conditions.
Some groups that can be called to assist and especially people with special needs include non-governmental organizations, volunteers, and medical specialists. Medical doctors have special skills to handle people with special needs such as patience and kindness listening to them. Volunteers and people from non-governmental organizations as well have some life support and special needs population support skills such being listening and caring. Conflict may arise as to how volunteers can be engaged.
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# After reading an emergency operations plan of Washington and Lee University there are a list of five instances where special needs populations are included in the planning process
§The First instance that Washington and Lee University indicate in their EOP for the disabilities is how to evacuate and where with clear instruction for them
§The Second instance is teaching the special needs population how to evacuate and prepare them for that cases before it happens along with taking their information so in case of disaster the safety department can reach them easily and know which kind of assistant every one of them needs.
§ The Third instance addressed in the EOP is for Mobility Impairment. For the student with mobility impairment and can’t evacuate by himself go to the evacuation point as it’s addressed in the evacuation plan. For any student who sees someone with disabilities first ask him/her if you can help and if s/he elects to wait for assistance from emergency responders, escort the individual to the safest accessible area.
§The other instance is for Blindness or Visual Impairment. If you see individuals with the type of disabilities give them a verbal instruction about the safest route or direction using directional terms, estimated distance, and advising of obstacles they may encounter. Ask if the assistant is needed. If so, offer your elbow and provide guidance through the appropriate area.
§The last instance is for Deafness, Hearing Loss, Language Difficulty. Before you try to help them get his/her attention by eye contact or touch, if necessary. Gesturing and pointing are helpful, but be prepared to write a brief statement to be easier for them to understand.
Another five (5) where they have been overlooked.
§The most critical instance they overlooked is to consider getting a medical alert system that will allow people with special needs to know when disaster strikes especially individual with deafness, hearing Loss, language Difficulty. The other instance they left to address is to store backup equipment at the university for a population of special needs in case of emergency. Moreover, they fled to do training for the people who will assist the individual with the special need. The last instance is they overlooked to make a plane for service animals/pets how they can provide the food and services for them.
# Utilizing the lists generated above, start thinking about the groups within the community that could be called upon to assist with including different segments of the special needs population. What resources do they possess? What conflicts may arise?
§Physician/ medical care provider where they can know how to prepare store back-up equipment at the university in case of any disaster happened and any individual with disabilities need a backup wheelchair or medication. Special needs educator may be required to educate or prepare some volunteers to help anyone with disabilities ahead of time, so they can know each other well because in a disaster some people may act differently due to a panic attack or something else. The last group could be called to assist veterinary physician where they can take care of the Service animals/pets, and how to provide food, shelter and veterinary attention within and after the disaster.
Emergency Management Plan. (2017, September). Retrieved August 23, 2018, from .