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Vitamins, Nutrients, Chronic Disease and Cancers & HIV

Discussion 4: Vitamins

Vitamins are energy building nutrients that contribute to sound nutritional health. Water, on the other hand, is responsible for carrying necessary nutrients and removing waste products throughout our body. A human body is made out of mostly water and is critical to our health. Similarly, minerals and electrolytes are essential to human health and can be obtained in our diet from different foods. When humans are too sick to consume a regular diet, digestion and absorption may impact the supply of necessary nutrients, requiring specialized nutritional support to meet their nutritional needs.

After studying  Module 4: Lecture Materials & Resources , read the case study and answer the prompts:

Sharyn Bartell is a 24-year-old student who suffered multiple fractures when she fell from a cliff when hiking. As a result of the accident, she is immobile, in traction, and had a small bowel resection. She is able to keep her head up to 45 degrees. Sharyn used to weigh 140 pounds but has lost 8 pounds since the accident. The healthcare team agrees that Sharyn will need a feeding tube before her nutritional status deteriorates any further.

  1. Navigate the web, research a high protein formula that can be administered via feeding tube and share 1) name of formula, 2) nutrient composition, and 3) indications for use.
  2. Navigate to the Oley Foundation:  Dietary Recommendations for Patients with Intestinal Failure – Oley FoundationLinks to an external site., read “Physiological Considerations” and discuss in at least one paragraph with two (2) effects of the small bowel resection on Sharyn’s fluid and electrolyte balance.
  3. Navigate to the Oley Foundation:  Living with Enteral Feeds – Oley FoundationLinks to an external site.and provide two (2) physical or psychosocial adjustments Sharyn will have to make when living with a feeding tube.

Discussion 5: Nutrients

All people need the same nutrients, but the amounts will vary depending on their stage in life such as infants, children, adolescents, pregnancy, adults, and older adults. For example, a pregnant woman will need to make sure she has a proper diet before, during, and after the pregnancy. A poor diet before and during the pregnancy may affect the health and development of her infant. She will also need to make sure and maintain a nutritionally balanced diet after the pregnancy, especially if she plans to breastfeed her infant.

After studying  Module 5: Lecture Materials & Resources , answer the following:

  1. Review figure 10-3 Comparison of Selected Nutrient Recommendations for Nonpregnant, Pregnant, and Lactating Women in text and compare the recommended percent allowances for:
  2. Iron – Who (nonpregnant, pregnant, lactating) needs it more and why?
  3. Ellen is an 18-year-old single mother of a six-month infant; she works at a convenience store and makes minimum wage. Ellen has limited financial means and needs assistance. Navigate to to an external site.and share at least two (3) examples of how food assistance programs can help Ellen’s infant and one (1) example of why nutrition is important for an infant – provide a full paragraph.
  4. Miguel is a 75-year older adult and has been diagnosed with early macular degeneration. Explain what macular degeneration is and share 2 vitamins or minerals that help reduce progression of the disease.

Discussion 6: Chronic Disease

According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2023), six out of ten adults in the United States have at least one chronic disease, and about four in ten have two or more chronic diseases. Chronic diseases include cardiovascular conditions, cancers, diabetes mellitus, and Alzheimer’s. Diet is a lifestyle factor that affects the development of many chronic conditions and even some neurological diseases.

After studying  Module 6: Lecture Materials & Resources , read the case study and answer the following:

Lenora is a 57-year-old Jamaican American female who works as a desk clerk. Her job requires her to sit all day from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., then she drives for one hour to go home. She lives alone in a studio apartment. By the time she gets home, she is tired and barely has time to pick up some fast food. She was recently diagnosed with hypertension and diabetes type 2. She is 5’ 5” tall and weighs 180 pounds with a BMI of 30.1. Her blood pressure was 150/105 and her HbA1C of 7.5%. The healthcare team starts Lenora on atenolol (Tenormin) for her hypertension and metformin (Glucophage) for her diabetes.

References: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. (2023).  About chronic diseases.

In paragraph form:

  1. Provide at least two (2) complications of uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes.
  2. Provide at least two (2) risk factors that may contribute to Lenora’s development of hypertension (see Appendix J: Body Mass Index (BMI) of your textbook)
  3. Describe what is HbA1C and how is it used to monitor diabetes? (see Chapter 20, page 564 of your textbook).
  4. Discuss what dietary counseling will Lenora need to control her hypertension and diabetes? Provide at least two (2) examples.

Discussion 7: Cancers & HIV

While cancers and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are different diseases, they both have debilitating effects that influence nutritional needs – and if nutritional needs are not met, both advanced stages of cancer and HIV can lead to severe body wasting. Cancer and HIV require highly individualized nutrition therapy.

After studying  Module 7: Lecture Materials & Resources , answer the following:

Navigate to HIVinfo by the to an external site.  – read the webpage and scroll to Healthy Living with HIV.

  1. Describe how foods may affect HIV treatment (provide at least 2 examples).
  2. Explain how to prevent opportunistic infections through their diet in people living with HIV.
  3. Describe the type of cancer frequently associated with HIV and explain how this cancer’s symptoms may cause anorexia on those with HIV (see page 663 in your textbook).

Last Updated on June 13, 2024

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