The US-Japan alliance remains the cornerstone of security in the Asia-Pacific.

Discuss the US-Japan alliance remains the cornerstone of security in the Asia-Pacific.

Please follow the structure below:

Thesis statement: The US’s engagement in the Asia-Pacific, regardless of its engagement in an international organisation or an alliance, determines the role the alliance plays in the Asia-Pacific. So far the US’s engagement in the alliance remains active; however, some variables make future stand of the alliace uncertain.

1. Introduction
1) Elaborate the ‘US-Japan alliance’

Explain the alliance, and state how the alliance plays the role as a regional security architecture.
– The United States’ “San Francisco,” or “hub-and-spokes,” system of alliances has contributed much to Asia’s security and economic development (Calder 2004; Tow and Envall 2011).

2) The question of whether the US-Japan alliance still dominates East Asia’s security architecture rises from several challenges, which include US’s response to the rise of China under Obama administration, the uncertainty under Trump administration, and domestic grievances in Japan toward the US’s military deployment.

The first section will be devoted to comparing the US-Japan alliance with other potential rivals as a security architecture in the Asia-Pacific, and will conclude that the alliance remains the centre of security in the region. The second, third and fourth sections are the issues that challenge the credibility of the alliance between the US and Japan.

2. First section: Potential rivals of security architectures in Asia-Pacific
1) ASEAN
2) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
a. Their success in peacekeeping and security enforcement
b. However:
c. Conclusion: US-Japan alliance remains the cornerstone

 

3. Second section: the US’s response under Obama administration

Security dilemma theory.

Obama’s administration
a. US’s elevated focus on the relationship with China regarding its foreign policies. Will the rise of the importance of US-China relationship come at the expense of US-Japan relationship?
§ However, stark challenges in U.S.-China economic relations were also observed, which cast shadows on broader policymaking.
§ The economic relationship between China and the US remains competitive. Beijing has implemented drastic restrictions on U.S. businesses and civil society organisations.

4. Third section: the US’s response under Trump administration

Trump’s administration **US’s decreased incentives to maintain the alliance with Japan**
► Changes in US’s strategy toward Asia & a shift of US’s relations with China.

a. American-centred foreign policies
1) On the one hand, it can mean US’s decreasing incentives of maintaining the alliance with Japan, such as reducing military spending in the US’s troops based in Japan. And also trade policies and economy are proritised over US’s foreign and security policies.
2) On the other hand, it can also indicate

b. Both Japan and US face significant fiscal challenges. Limited sources could strain alliance capabilities.
Trump’s claims of non-reciprocal relationship with Japan (Japan takes full responsibility of US’s military cost in Japan) The two aspects envisioned US’s interests in Asia.

c. N. Korea’s increased nuclear arms and ballistic missile tests became the US’s burden to protect Japan and the neighbouring countries (?).

 

5. Fourth section: Domestic concerns in Japan

Domestic concerns which undermines the wider and further allinace.
a. Okinawa residents’ grievances and distrust to the US military.
1) Despite people in Okinawa’s resentment of the US troops, Japan still supports the alliance.
2) The negative impact of such crimes on the perceptions of Okinawans regarding US forces in Japan consistently impedes the ability of US forces to promote the constructive work they do in Japan, such as disaster relief operations carried out during Operation Tomodachi following the Tohoku disaster in March 2011

 

6. Conclusion

**Reminder**

– References to be done in the in-text/author-date style using the Chicago system.
– Please mention the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion.

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