WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT 1: REFLEXES
Please complete your answers to the lab questions on this form. Please complete your answers, and SAVE the file in a location which you will be able to find again. Then, attach and submit the completed form to the Week 3 Laboratory dropbox in the Ashford University classroom.
- What is the pupillary response of the right eye when a light was shone into the pupil?
- What is the consensual response? (The response of the left eye).
- What branch of the nervous system controls this response?
- Can this response be inhibited?
- Define what a reflex is.
- Name five essential components of a reflex arc.
WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT 2: TESTING CRANIAL NERVE FUNCTIONS
Table 2: Cranial Nerve Function Testing
- What do your cranial nerve test results tell you?
- When might these tests be used in a clinical setting?
- What cranial nerve may not be functioning properly if a patient cannot detect taste on the anterior tongue?
- What cranial nerve may not be functioning properly if a patient can move his/her eyes medial, superior, and inferior, but not lateral?
WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENT 3: TESTING TOUCH, TEMPERATURE, AND PAIN
Table 3: Blind Coin Differentiation
- Describe the difference between the four US coins.
- Was the participant able to distinguish between these coins?
- Which coin was the easiest to identify by touch? Which was the most difficult to distinguish by touch?
- Why is the detection of temperature important to maintaining overall health?
- Did the participant notice any difference between the amounts of pain reception in the different areas tested?
Choose one of the CDC’s five most common chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, or arthritis) and describe the anatomical and physiological changes associated with the endocrine system. Describe normal function of the system and how the disease alters the normal function. List signs and symptoms that indicate the disease has developed, specific to the system being covered. Identify and describe steps people can take to reduce their risk of developing the chronic disease.
Use two scholarly sources (one may be your course text) to support your initial post. All sources must be referenced and cited according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your initial post should be 250 words at a minimum.
Student Replys Response: Review several of your classmates’ initial posts. Respond to one post by a classmate who covered the nervous system and one post by a classmate who covered the endocrine system. Choose a comorbid condition associated with the disease chosen by the student to whom you are responding. List signs and symptoms associated with the comorbidity. List factors that contribute to the development of the comorbidity as well as steps the person can take to avoid the development of the problem. Describe the impact of the comorbid condition on a patient’s physical and mental health. Your responses must be at least 100 words in length.
Student Reply 1: Denise Scheuer
Chronic diseases and other conditions may affect endocrine system function in several ways. The endocrine system works together with the nervous system to regulate the activities of all the body systems. The endocrine system secretes hormones that act very slowly on distant targets with long lasting effects (Colbert, Ankney, and Lee, 2013). After hormones produce their effects at their target organs, they are broken down (metabolized) into inactive molecules. The liver and kidneys are the main organs that break down hormones. The ability of the body to break down hormones may be decreased in people who have chronic heart, liver, or kidney disease.
Cardiovascular abnormalities associated with pathologic changes of endocrine glands are due to the fact that various hormones interact with the cardiovascular system. Pituitary, adrenal, parathyroid and thyroid hormone excesses or deficiencies may produce cardiovascular disorders that usually resolve with the correction of the underlying endocrine disease.
Cardiovascular symptoms are predominant in the clinical presentation of hyperthyroidism. Palpitations increase in heart rate both at rest and during sleep, exercise intolerance and dyspnea are the main manifestations. A subset of patients can experience angina like chest pain or true myocardial ischemia, even with normal coronaries, coronary vasospasm, although myocardial infarction is rare. The most common rhythm disturbance is sinus tachycardia that is usually overshadowed by atrial fibrillation.
Ways to prevent heart disease to start is by eating a healthy diet. Choosing healthful meal and snack options can help you avoid heart disease and its complications. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Eating foods low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in fiber can help prevent high blood cholesterol.
Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.
Retrieved from https://www.hormone.org/what-is-endocrinology/newl… (Links to an external site.)
Retrieved from https://www.escardio.org/Journals/E-Journal-of-Car…
Student Reply 2: Meagan Myers
The nervous system is made up of nerves and cells that send signals all over the body. The nervous system is made up of two main parts, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is everything outside of the brain and spinal cord and is made up of two small parts, somatic and autonomic. The central nervous system controls all of our basic bodily function and responds to external changes. The peripheral nervous system provides the body with motor and sensory fibers that connect the central system to the rest of the body. ANS parallels the spinal cord but also helps to control exocrine glands, blood vessels, organs, and external genetalia. The motor system tells the muscles and body glands how to respond to new information. The somatic nervous system controls skeletal muscles and voluntary muscles and the autonomic system controls smooth and cardiac muscles. (Colbert, Ankney, Lee, 2013).
Arthritis is the inflammation of the joints. The symptoms of this are pain, swelling, and stiffness of the joints. Since the nervous system controls how you feel and process pain it plays a major role. People who have arthritis will know from the discomfort they feel in the joints because their nervous system send messages through nerve fibers to the brain and spinal cord, central nervous system.
You can’t always avoid or prevent arthritis, but you can do your best by protecting your joints. Eating a certain diet that is high in things like calcium and protein, and to control your weight. You can also exercise and protect yourself by using safety equipment to prevent injuries.
Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals(2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.
GEENEN, R., VAN MIDDENDORP, H., & BIJLSMA, J. W. J. (2006). The Impact of Stressors on Health Status and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Autonomic Nervous System Responsiveness in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1069(1), 77–97. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1196/…
https://www.healthline.com/health/arthritis-preven… (Links to an external site.)
During the lab exercise, you will learn about the pupillary light reflex and possible dysfunctions seen via this reflex. This exercise enables you to see a reflex arc in action and to describe the steps of this function of the body. Further, you will learn how the cranial nerves function by testing the cranial nerves with a partner. Finally, you will perform an exercise in which you will experience how touch, temperature, and pain are differentiated in the Testing Touch, Temperature, and Pain Perceptipn experiment.
For this assignment you must:
Answer reflex questions one through six from assignment one.
Complete the cranial nerve function testing table and questions one through four in assignment two.
Complete the blind coin differentiation table and questions one through four in assignment three.
Your assignment must be formatted according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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