Survey of Genetic Traits

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Survey of Genetic Traits (Individual and Family Level)

Special Note: This laboratory is designed with the expectation that you will work alone and then

share the data.

Equipment (Lab/Post-Lab)

1) Copies of karyotypes. 2) Graph paper and paper for taking laboratory notes 3) Ruler 4) Completed Pre-Lab family genetic data (Under the “Share Your Data” link on Canvas)

Part 1:

Karyotyping

Procedure

1) You are given a karyotype sheet and a set of printed chromosome sheets. [Caution: be organized or you will get bogged down during this component of the laboratory.]

2) Hint: You may need to print 1+ extra chromosome sheets to complete this portion of the exercise.

3) For your set of chromosomes, correctly place these chromosomes onto the blank sheet to complete the karyotype for your individual. Hints:

  1. Of course, use the Chromosome Key handout as a guide. b. I have found that an initial sort by overall size, then the shape at the centromere, the color

at the centromere is a good start.

  1. Just like a puzzle, identity the most obvious first and then work with those “tougher” ones.
  • You can find the blank sheet here (print 4 copies):

rd.pdf

  • Here are copies of jumbled chromosome sheets:

omosomes.pdf

4) You will be needing to create 4 karyotypes: 1) Turner syndrome 2) Patau syndrome, 3) Klinefelter’s syndrome; and 4) Down’s syndrome.

5) Scan or photograph each karyotype and submit with lab work. You may attach these to the data collection form or attach separately.

6) Be sure you label each.

Part 2:

Pedigrees/Punnett Squares

(Ideally, done during lab; if not completed finish outside lab)

Procedure

1) Obtain a copy of the Pre-Lab data from one member of your lab group, and use this as the basis of the work performed in Part 2. This data should be available under the “Share Your

Data” link.

2) If needed, use one or more Punnett Squares to determine the genotype of individual family members

3) Next draw a pedigree that one of the traits, as documented for his/her family (pick one of these traits for which there is variability in the family).

  1. Use the template and graphing paper.

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Blank_board.pdf

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Blank_board.pdf

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Paper_chromosomes.pdf

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Paper_chromosomes.pdf

Genetics – Family Procedures 2

  1. Be sure to properly label each member of the pedigree, either with name or a letter.

4) Repeat this process for at least two additional traits. 5) Be sure to attach the photocopy of this person’s Pre-Lab data collection sheet when you submit

your work.

Part 3:

Baby Genetics 1

Background

Students will work individually in the lab to produce a baby from the random mixing of genetic

traits.

Part 3A: Procedure

Step 1:

Determining the genetic makeup of the egg and the sperm.

1) You will use a coin and Table 2 to determine the genetic make-up of the parents’ sperm or egg. 2) First you need to determine if the sperm contains an X or a Y chromosome. Heads is X and tails

is Y.

3) Then determine the genetic makeup of the sperm for each trait listed in Table 2. a. Each side of a coin represents an allele. Heads represents a dominant trait (left column of

Table 2) and each tails represents the recessive trait (right column of Table 2).

  1. There are 4 autosomal chromosomes (Chromosomes 1-4) ii. There is 1 sex chromosome.
  2. Toss your coin for each trait listed in Table 2. i. Example: My first coin toss is heads for the eyebrow shape. I record A in Table 3
  3. Example: my second coin toss is tails for eye color. I record b in Table 3. 4) I continue down the list of traits until I have recorded data for each of the father’s traits found in

father’s sperm in Table 3.

5) Repeat this same process for the mother’s egg.

Step 2:

Making a baby

1) Combine the genetic materials of both parents and record as the baby’s genotype. a. Example: Father’s sperm contained the A trait, and the mother’s egg did too. Record AA. b. Example: Father’s sperm contained the b trait, and the mother’s egg contained the B trait.

Record Bb

  1. Continue to combine until all traits are recorded. d. Careful. Some traits are sex.-linked.

2) Next determine the phenotype of the baby. a. It is important to determine the baby phenotype at birth. b. For the offspring’s phenotype use Table 2 as your guide. c. Remember that a CAPITAL letter is dominant over a small letter [recessive] unless the

decoding chart indicates those traits are co-dominant, sex-linked, or sex-limited.

Part 3B: Questions

1) Complete the debriefing questions found on the Data Collection handout. 2) Use the data from Part 3A to help you answer the questions.

1 Based on an exercise by Dr. Pamela Esprivalo Harrell, University of North Texas, developed an earlier version of

“Dragon Genetics” which is described in the January 1997 issue of Science Scope, 20:4, 33-37.Copyright 2005, Bob

Farber, Central High School, Philadelphia, PA [With permission.]

Genetics – Family Procedures 3

Table 2:

Decoding of the genes

Special Note: Remember: This gene scenario does NOT represent the actual human genome.

Chromosome # Dominant genes (HEADS) Recessive genes (TAILS)

Chromosome 1 A. Arched eyebrow shape B. “Brown” eyes C. Cleft chin D. [DD/Dd]2 Male: Long eye lashes

[DD/Dd] Female: Short eye lashes
  1. Curved eyebrow shape b. “Blue” eyes c. No cleft chin d. [dd] Short eye lashes (Both sexes)

Chromosome 2 F. Freckles G. “Dark” hair H. No hitchhiker’s thumb I. Large eyes J. Flat feet

  1. No freckles g. Red-haired h. Hitchhiker’s thumb i. Small eyes j. Arched feet

Chromosome 3 K. No patterned balding3

  1. [LL/Ll] Male: High forehead4 [LL/Ll]Female: No high forehead
  2. No middle finger hair N. Normal chin
  3. [kk] Males: Patterned balding [kk] Females: No patterned

balding

  1. [ll] Male/Female: No high forehead
  2. Middle finger hair n. Receding chin

Chromosome 4 P. Wide mouth (side-to-side) R. [RR/Rr] No tongue rolling5

  1. [SS] Blue spots forehead [Ss] Green spots on forehead
  2. Taster
  3. Narrow mouth r. [rr] Males: Tongue roller
[rr] Females: No tongue rolling
  1. [ss] Yellow spots
  2. Non-taster

Sex Chromosomes

[X chromosome] [Y chromosome]
  1. Unattached earlobe V. Snoring W. Widow’s peak

Z Non-fire breather 6

  1. Attached earlobe v. No snoring w. No widow’s peak
  2. Fire breather

Special notes: The egg will have 3 genes (U or u, V or v, and W or w) but no Z or z. The sperm will

carry Z or z, if it is populated with a Y chromosome, The sperm will carry will have 3 genes (U or u,

V or v, and W or w) if it is populated with an X chromosome.

Differences between sex-limited, sex-influenced, and sex-linked trait:

2 Sex-limited trait (expressed in males only; females can carry genes) 3 Sex-influenced trait 4 Sex-limited trait 5 Sex-limited trait 6 Sex-linked trait; only found on Y chromosome.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eek0KpV8jUo

Name _______________________________________________________________ Anthropology &215

Special Note: This laboratory is designed with the expectation that you will work alone and then share

the data.

Grading: For each, use X if completed, P if partially completed, and 0 if not attempted.

___ Table 1: Karyotyping (4 points) ___ Part 2: Three pedigree charts (6 points)

___ Part 3A: Table 3 (4 points) ___ Part 3B: De-briefing questions (3 points)

___ Post-lab baby picture (3 points)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Data Collection (Lab)
  • Data on these pages are to be completed during the 2-hour laboratory.
  • The laboratory is designed with the expectation that you will work alone and then share the data.
  • Perhaps you might even anticipate the work and pre-plan the teams (hint!)

Part 1: Karyotyping

Table 1: Karyotype Data (4 points)

  • You can find the blank sheet here (print 4 copies):

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Blank_board.pdf

  • Here are copies of jumbled chromosome sheets:

f

Once you complete the 4 karyotypes, scan or photograph and submit with lab work as part of your data

collection.

Part 2:

Pedigrees/Punnett Squares

Procedure (6 points)

1) Obtain a copy of the Pre-Lab data from a classmate (on Canvas under the link called “Share Your Data”) Use these data as the basis of the work performed in Part 2.

2) If needed, use one or more Punnett Squares to determine the genotype of individual family members 3) Next draw a pedigree that one of the traits, as documented for his/her family (pick one of these traits

for which there is variability in the family).

  1. Use the template and graphing paper. b. Be sure to properly label each member of the pedigree, either with name or a letter.

4) Repeat this process for at least two additional traits. 5) Be sure to attach the photocopy of this person’s Pre-Lab data collection sheet when you submit your

work.

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Blank_board.pdf

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Paper_chromosomes.pdf

http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Paper_chromosomes.pdf

Genetics – Family Data Collection 2

Offspring’s Genotype : _______________

__________________________________

Offspring’s Phenotype: _______________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Sperm: ______________________________

____________________________________

Egg:_________________________________

_____________________________________

Offspring’s Genotype : _______________

__________________________________

Offspring’s Phenotype: _______________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Sperm: ______________________________

____________________________________

Egg:_________________________________

_____________________________________

Offspring’s Genotype : _______________

__________________________________

Offspring’s Phenotype: _______________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Sperm: ______________________________

____________________________________

Egg:_________________________________

_____________________________________

Offspring’s Genotype : _______________

__________________________________

Offspring’s Phenotype: _______________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Sperm: ______________________________

____________________________________

Egg:_________________________________

_____________________________________

Offspring’s Genotype : _______________

__________________________________

Offspring’s Phenotype: _______________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Sperm (X or Y): ________________________

____________________________________

Egg (X): _____________________________

_____________________________________

Part 3A: Making a baby

Table 3: Making Sperm, Egg, and a Baby (Part 3A) (4 points)

Source of Traits: Chromosome 1

Source of Traits: Chromosome 2

Source of Traits: Chromosome 3

Source of Traits: Chromosome 4

Source of Traits: Sex Chromosome

Genetics – Family Data Collection 3

Part 3B: Laboratory Debriefing Questions

Karyotype questions (Select any one of the genetic defects identified during the lab and answer Questions

1-2).

1) What percentage of the population exhibits this defect? (0.5 point) [Computer work; cite your source in APA format]

2) What are the main symptoms of this defect? (0.5 point) [Computer work; cite your source in APA format]

Baby questions

1) What is the sex of your baby? _______________ (no points)

2) Complete the table below (2 points)

Type of trait Example from scenario ACTUAL example [Computer work]

Sex-influenced trait

Sex-linked trait

Sex-limited trait

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Draw the Baby

1) This part of the laboratory is worth 3 points.

2) Create a “photo” of the new offspring, which shows the phenotype of the child at birth. You can use

the blank photo or create one from scratch.

3) Any trait which would appear later in life and/or those phenotypic traits could not be portrayed,

indicate in notes separately.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-AXX1ms0bawQ/UV-z_PuPPOI/AAAAAAAABCg/mIlb2Em6v04/s1600/Baby%2BDrawing%2BPictures-792405.jpg

Student Exploration: Human Karyotyping

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