# Statistics Questions

1. Under Six Sigma guidelines, a. The focus is on minimizing both waste and held inventory b. Improvement projects need to have a goal defined in the first project step c. All product should be within three standard deviations on each side of the target value d. All employees can lead a quality improvement project, regardless of Six Sigma rank
2. Mike is working with data from three different plants that produce cheese sauce. He suspects Plant 1 is making a more viscous sauce than Plants 2 and 3. What basic quality tools can Mile use to determine whether this suspicion is valid? a. A histogram of cheese sauce viscosity from all plants combined b. A control chart of cheese sauce viscosity from each plant c. A check sheet of the make procedure for each batch of cheese sauce from each plant d. A scatter plot of cheese sauce viscosity and plant location
3. Which of these statements are principles of most quality management systems? a. All employees at all levels should be involved in the quality management effort b. Quality can be inspected into a product c. Product should be made as quickly as possible without generating excess waste or reducing product quality d. Quality is a moving target and there is always room for improvement of quality
4. Andrea’s lab was having trouble keeping organized notebooks and data files. Andrea wrote a proposal to management asking for funds to pay for employee training and an electronic notebook and data organization system. She notes in her proposal that the \$60,000 she needs for this project will be recovered in less than three years from cost savings in reduction of mistakes, lost hours searching for data and rerunning experiments, and reduced time for future experiments due to better access to previous data. What are the costs of quality in Andrea’s proposal? a. Prevention costs b. Appraisal costs c. Failure costs d. These aren’t costs of quality, they are other business costs
5. Quality management has been present in some form for over 1,000 years. As we have learned more about quality management, we have realized a. Automation can increase product quality, but it does not substitute for proper inspection b. Involving the entire company in quality management efforts is important c. Attention to quality is ultimately more important than producing inexpensive products d. 100% of all product manufactured must be inspected to ensure high quality

Part 2: Short Answer (70 points total) 1. (30 points) A food product is made using the following process: 1. Ingredients A and B are mixed in a large tank 2. While A and B are mixing, ingredients C, D, and E are mixed in a separate, heated tank 3. Ingredients C, D, and E are added to ingredients A, B, and C in their tank and mixed for 10 minutes 4. The mixture is pumped to a heat exchanger and pasteurized. The heat exchanger uses steam as a heating medium. 5. The hot product is pumped to a filling unit for packaging. The packages are sterilized before they contact the product. 6. The packaged product is cooled to room temperature and stored in a warehouse until shipped.

a. (20 points) Draw a diagram for this process. Include all inputs, outputs, and subprocesses described. Go by the description only and do not make any assumptions.

1. (continued) b. (10 points total, 2 points each) The company holds a focus group to determine consumer perceptions of the product’s quality. What dimension(s) of quality is/are indicated by the following consumer comments? i. “I like how I can store this in the cupboard for several months and it still looks and tastes good.”

ii. “Yes, I did call customer service about the problems I had with this product. They were friendly; they took my complaint and made sure I got some coupons for free product.”

iii. “I really love how this tastes! But I have a hard time getting the package open. The tear here thing doesn’t work well.”

iv. “The product tends to separate when I heat it too long.”

v. “I wish the package was recloseable. I don’t use a lot at once and I have to find a container for the leftovers. I do like the way the package looks, though. It’s so cheerful and the picture looks yummy!”

(20 points) The Six Sigma process for problem solving has five steps: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC). In these steps, basic statistical quality tools are used to track down the problem and develop permanent solutions.

Which of the seven basic quality tools would you use in each step of the DMAIC process and why? You must use at least 5 of the 7 tools in your answer. You must also clearly explain why the tool is appropriate for the particular phase. You can also use more than one tool per phase.

1. (10 points) Foodborne outbreaks are the result of a major quality management problem. Being associated with a foodborne outbreak can have lasting repercussions on a company. Describe two costs of quality associated with foodborne illnesses and the steps companies must take when one occurs. Be sure to indicate the type of quality cost in your answer.

(10 points) You are a supervisor of multiple operators and line workers at a food processing plant. The plant prides itself on both production of high-quality snack foods and no product recalls for the last 15 years. However, there are several employees that are complaining about the Good Manufacturing Processes they need to follow during their job.

They say the hairnets are itchy and the gloves are too big. They also feel that they have to clean the equipment too often and the cleaning process takes too long. You have tried to explain to them why these precautions are needed for food safety and quality, but they are not convinced. Using your knowledge of quality management principles, explain why it is important for these employees to follow GMPs and discuss at least one strategy for helping them follow the guidelines. You do not need to use a specific quality management program, but your answers should be based on current knowledge of sound quality management practice

Last Updated on September 19, 2018

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