The new guidelines regarding plasma glucose levels in pregnant women following the HAPO study are credited with lowering the instances of diabetes birth complications. Why?
They resulted in more pregnant women receiving counseling about diabetes.
They meant that fewer women were diagnosed with the condition.
They mandated that gestational diabetes research receive more funding.
They recognized that obesity and plasma glucose are unrelated.
Type 2 diabetes has historically been most common in adults, but rates are rising in children and adolescents. To what are researchers attributing this?
Viruses that environmentally trigger diabetes are more common.
Women are experiencing higher rates of gestational diabetes and passing it to their newborns.
A more sedentary lifestyle is leading to higher rates of obesity among young people.
Greater awareness is leading more people to be tested for diabetes.
What are the most important metrics for managing diabetes, according to the National Diabetes Education Program?
Time spent exercising weekly; blood glucose levels; and BMI
Body Mass Index; blood pressure levels; and caloric intake
Frequency of insulin injections; cholesterol levels; and glucagon levels
Cholesterol levels; blood glucose; and blood pressure
Which of the following is NOT a predictor of gestational diabetes?
The racial and ethnic background of a pregnant woman.
The proximity of fast food restaurants to a pregnant woman’s home.
The regularity of a pregnant woman’s eating habits.
The amount of weight a woman gains during her pregnancy.
Which of the following statements BEST describes the relationship between genetics and environmental triggers regarding the manifestation of type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
Both people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have genes that make them susceptible to diabetes, but an environmental trigger is necessary for the disease to manifest itself.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by inherited genes alone, while type 2 diabetes needs both genetic and environmental factors to manifest.
While some people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have genetic markers for it, the environmental trigger is a far bigger factor in the disease’s development.
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are triggered by an environmental factor: viruses.
Lacey is a 65-year-old woman living with type 2 Diabetes. Which of the following dynamics affecting Lacey would be considered a macro level dynamic?
A recent initiative passed by the federal government requires all health plans to cover insulin pens, which Lacey’s plan previously didn’t cover.
Lacey’s apartment building is in an area that lacks a grocery store, so she relies on a convenience store for food.
While adjusting to retirement, Lacy meets with a dietitian who helps her plan out regular meal and snack times.
Lacey’s family has a tradition of making large meals every Sunday that they share after church.
Why does monitoring their own blood glucose (self-monitoring) help people manage their diabetes?
It lets a person know if they should participate in physical activities.
It eliminates the need for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).
It helps people know what actions to take to avoid a medical emergency.
It helps people maintain privacy while receiving medical treatment.
The DAWN2 study found that doctors rarely encouraged their diabetes patients to seek out psychological care. Why was this finding troubling?
Because it indicates that doctors are prioritizing their patients’ privacy over their care.
Because patients in psychological care are more likely to treat their illness by changing their lifestyle instead of taking medication.
Because psychologists can help patients manage stress and feelings of shame, which are correlated with noncompliance with treatment plans.
Because psychologists are well positioned to help patients understand complicated treatment plans.
Jaqueline is an obese 48-year-old woman who was just diagnosed with prediabetes. Her doctor wants to create the most effective plan to reduce her risk of developing type 2 diabetes. What is her doctor most likely to suggest?
That Jaqueline should undergo bariatric surgery to prompt rapid weight loss.
That Jaqueline should monitor her blood glucose and exercise daily.
That Jaqueline should make modest lifestyle changes to reduce her weight.
That Jaqueline should start taking the oral medication metformin.
How is type 2 diabetes different when it manifests in adolescence rather than adulthood?
Type 2 diabetes is better managed by young people because they can learn self-monitoring more quickly.
Type 2 diabetes is more aggressive and has a higher mortality rate in young people than in adults.
Type 2 diabetes is less likely to cause kidney damage in young people than in adults.
Type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly rare among young people while its rates are rising among adults.
Rashida and Molly are paramedics. They receive a call that a woman has lost consciousness at the grocery store after complaining of chest pain. Once on the scene, they find her unresponsive and with a faint, regular pulse. From what is their patient most likely suffering?
Rebecca is a 62-year-old woman and a regular runner. One day, she completes her mid-day run, but is still having trouble catching her breath an hour after she returns. She has a headache and her jaw feels tight. In addition, she is lightheaded. While telling a colleague how she feels, she becomes nauseous. What is most likely the cause of Rebecca’s symptoms?
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the prevalence of heart disease in the United States?
It is the leading cause of death for adults of all genders.
It is the leading cause of death for adult men, but the number two killer of women.
It causes approximately 40,000 deaths in newborns.
It is more prevalent in older adult women and younger men.
Why can heart disease cause angina?
Because when the heart has to work harder, the heart rate increases.
Because the presence of nitroglycerine relaxes the blood vessels.
Because blood clots press against the arterial walls, causing them to stretch.
Because less blood flowing through arteries leads waste to build up in the heart tissues.
Gloria is a 45-year-old woman who has a vibrant social life in addition to her full-time job. She loves taking her two young daughters out for ice cream after their soccer practice or meeting with friends for cocktails at the end of the week. At a recent check-up, her doctor told her she has prehypertension. What course of action is the doctor most likely to recommend?
Add 30 minutes of aerobic activity per day
Begin taking thiazides and ACE inhibitors
Reduce salt intake to two teaspoons per day
Cut dairy from her diet
What is the most likely explanation for the dramatically higher rates of stroke deaths among African American men compared to all other demographics?
What is the procedure in which a catheter is used to insert a balloon into a blocked artery, where it is inflated?
coronary artery bypass graft
percutaneous coronary intervention
Why does the AHA/ASA recommend that health care insurance plans reimburse clients or offer for free things like a gym membership or smoking cessation programs?
Because their multicomponent study discovered that the main reason why people don’t make healthy choices is financial.
Because they found that the U.S. health care system favors evidence-based treatment.
Because their study revealed that one-way interactions (i.e., issuing a reimbursement check) are effective ways to change behavior.
Because they discovered that the U.S. health care system routinely fails to take into account research on the care and prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Which of the following describes NHANES’s most recent findings with regards to hypertension awareness and race?
African Americans tend to be more aware of hypertension, but face greater challenges controlling it.
Overall white people are the most aware of hypertension and the most likely to have control over the condition.
Hispanic people are less likely to be aware of hypertension, but more likely to have their hypertension under control.
African Americans people tend to be less aware of hypertension than white people, but both groups are able to control hypertension at the same rate.
Claire is a 34-year-old woman pregnant with her third child. She admits having smoked regularly during her pregnancy. When her child is born, its back is covered in a blue stripes and spots. The doctors immediately suspect which of the following?
Claire also used illegal drugs during her pregnancy.
Claire probably has undiagnosed tetralogy of Fallot.
The major arteries of the baby’s heart are transposed.
The baby has an atrioventricular septal defect.