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Problem-Solution Proposal

ENGLISH 1302 Problem-Solution Proposal

Purpose: To persuade the audience of the following: 1) a problem/issue exists (your arguable issue/your question is your confirmation that a problem exists), 2) there is a way to solve the issue OR improve the situation, and 3) the proposed solution is beneficial. Audience: An organization, foundation, group, website, publication, foundation, individual, etc., who has the authority to grant what you propose. You have to choose a specific audience (no “American people,” “people interested in my topic,” or “government”) for your paper. Name your audience by a proper noun (i.e., you have to capitalize it). You must address your audience twice in the proposal: once in the problem section and once in the conclusion section.

Format: This is not a traditional essay. This is a proposal. You are proposing a solution or an improvement to your issue. It requires a different format than you are used to writing. It requires a proposal format. There is a title page with one required and cited visual and bold sections, and sometimes italics for subsections. There are also two additional visuals needed for the Problem section. However, the paragraphs and citations follow standard MLA. Overview of the Proposal by organized, formatted, bold sections that are organized for your proposal:

  1. Problem or Issue: Provide an overview and introduction of the problem or arguable issue, including short quotations or paraphrases from sources, each documented with MLA formatted in-text citations. You need two visual sources within this section, and the one on the title page does not count, but you must have a title page visual. Remember to use language designed to convince (appeals: logos, ethos, pathos) your audience about the problem. Think about the values and emotions you share with your audience and consider how you might appeal to them through the appeals. Here are some tips to help persuade your audience to care about your issue:
  • Try to evoke emotions (sympathy, outrage, anger, delight, awe, horror, etc.) in your audience that make your paper more moving.
  • Try to evoke sensations (seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, smelling) in your audience that make your writing vivid and help readers experience things imaginatively.
  • Appeal to values (freedom, justice, tolerance, fairness, equality, etc.) that you share with your audience.

In this section, also add your opinion. Where do you stand? This should be at the end of this first problem section, and you also need to mention your audience directly. Who did you pick to propose this solution to?

  1. Solution: Provide a realistic solution that will alleviate OR improve the situation within context. This solution or improvement should be the central position of the proposal. Address at least

Topic :

Should renewable energy replace fossil fuels?

one extended counterargument to some part of your issue in this section. You may choose a hypothetical naysayer or a real opponent found in your sources if your solution has multiple parts, subhead with italics. To counter-argue, follow below:

  • name and describe your opponent(s). • describe your opponent’s position fairly and accurately. • respond with a well-­­considered and reasonable rebuttal.
  1. Benefits of the Solution: Provide compelling reasons why readers must act on your solution.

Explain the limits of existing solutions, and explain the positive and beneficial implications of your solution or improvement idea. Also, create subheadings in italics if your solution has multiple benefits.

  1. Conclusion: Reiterate the solution’s main elements and remind readers why this solution will help with the problem. Convince readers this action is necessary and conclude with a specific call to action directly to your audience. So, you are directly addressing your audience again in this paragraph
  2. MLA Works Cited Page: The final page is your works cited page; list the MLA citations from all sources used in the paper. At least three of your sources are from the visuals. Requirements:
  • MLA formatting for in-text citations and Works Cited page
  • Works Cited page listing reliable sources that are cited within the essay
  • About 4 pages of text is the average
  • Appealing Visual Design • Uniform headings of Problem, Solution, Benefits, and Conclusion in bold. • TWO Visual Elements, such as data/graph and/or image related to proposal
  • Caption for each visual element that explains the relevance of the image. Evaluation (Rubric) will be based on the following:

➢ Explanation of Issues: The Issue/Problem to be considered critically is stated, described, and clarified, so omissions do not seriously impede that understanding.

➢ Evidence: Information is taken from source(s) with enough interpretation/evaluation to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis. Viewpoints of experts are subject to questioning.

➢ Student’s Position: Specific position (perspective, thesis/hypothesis) considers the complexities of an issue. Others’ points of view are acknowledged within position (perspective, thesis/hypothesis).

➢ Content Development: The proposal uses appropriate, relevant, and compelling content to explore ideas within the context of the discipline and shape of the whole work.

➢ Sources: The writer demonstrates a consistent use of credible, relevant authorities and visuals to support ideas situated within the writing discipline and genre.

➢ Control of Syntax and Mechanics: The language is a straightforward language that generally conveys meaning to readers. The language in the proposal has few errors.

Epidemics and Air Travel

Ensuring Safety for Everyone during Travel

This image elaborates the presence of various infectious micro-organisms that are not visible

to our eyes during travel. Additionally, it shows physically healthy-appearing travelers are

sometimes carrying diseases that might transmit to other vulnerable members of the society,

such as children and the elderly (Wald).

Presented by: Student Name

Insert due date , 2022

Problem

Which strategies can keep air travel safe during epidemics? Air travel restrictions are

one of the initial emergency rapid responses to control any infectious diseases. Especially

when the disease etiology is a viral infection and is spreading through airborne droplets, they

are highly contagious. Moreover, due to the incubation period after acquiring the infection,

infected individuals do not exhibit symptoms days after being infected. Then, these infected

individuals without symptoms carry the viruses to their destinations, including other counties,

via an airplane within hours.

Consequently, they spread the viral infection, which creates global chaos. Globally,

there have been various epidemic threats. Figure 1 shows a list of six major communicable

disease epidemic threats from 2002-2015 (United States Government, p. 5). In 2003 SARS

outbreak lasted for six months. Similarly, infections like H5N1 since 2003 to date, H1N1

since 2009 to date, since 2012 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, since 2013 H7N9

Influenza, and since 2014 Ebola diseases have already caused epidemics affecting multiple

countries. These diseases have posed either relatively less, similar, or greater impact as the

COVID-19 has caused in the world since December 2019 and in the U.S. since February

  1. Hence, situations like disease epidemics could be known as commonly occurring issues

that need permanent solutions.

Previously, the air travel ban had been instigated at various instances to control these

highly contagious diseases such as Ebola and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

outbreaks (Mateus 1). During an epidemic, when individuals travel by air, various challenges

are faced by the travel destinations, passengers, and airlines. Among them, the financial burden

is a concern of mutual interest that affects each of these stakeholders by increasing costs.

Hence, a temporary air travel ban has not remained effective (Belluz, Hoffman, Peak, et al.).

The recipient country would like to keep down the costs from health care that are increased

during epidemics.

Figure 1: Major Epidemic Threats since 2002 to 2015. It shows a list of six major communicable disease epidemic threats from 2002-2015

(United States Government Accountability Office 5). In 2003 SARS outbreak lasted for 6 months. Similarly, infections like H5N1 since 2003 to date, H1N1 since 2009 to date, since 2012 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, since 2013 H7N9 Influenza, and since 2014 Ebola

diseases have already caused epidemics affecting multiple countries. These diseases have posed either relatively less, similar, or greater

impact as the COVID-19 has caused in the world since December, 2019, and in U.S. since February 2020 (United States Government, et al., p. 5)).

Then, the individuals would like to gain the income they lost by visiting foreign

counties. Similarly, the air travel agencies would like to keep their financial revenue coming

in round the year. The United States welcomes individuals from all parts of the world. This is

evident in Figure 2 when individuals from across the globe come to visit here (United States

Government, p. 14). These visitors land at the twelve major airports in the U.S.’s highly

populous and urban cities, making the U.S. highly vulnerable.

Nevertheless, the statistics of the number of affected cases of the recent situation of

the Novel Coronavirus, also known as COVID-19 is increasing (World Health Organization).

This infection started only a couple of months ago, but it has affected tens of thousands of

individuals in several countries. Initially, this highly contingent disease was not expected to

be extremely life-threatening, and the mortality rate expected was two percent. However, the

situation has worsened in just a few days, and the actual mortality rate is of 3.4 percent

globally (World Health Organization). Besides, it is important to understand this might be

just the tip of the iceberg because mortalities might be underreported or unreported

(Achenbach 1). Hence, it becomes important for the Transportation Security Administration

(TSA) to implement certain strategies that can keep highly contingent diseases away that are

epidemic in various part of the world. Thus, ban on air travel is not the solution for these

highly contagious illnesses.

Figure 2: It shows the top five U.S. International Arrival Airports for Five Global Regions, 2014 (United States Government Accountability

Office 14). Besides, the visitors land at the twelve major airports in highly populous and urban cities of the U.S., making the U.S. highly

vulnerable (Peak).

Additionally, there is a need for solutions from evidence-based practices to be

implemented by the TSA at the airport receiving terminals. These strategies are cost-effective

and efficiently help to prevent epidemics to their local population.

Solutions

TSA can help us avoid spreading several contagious diseases by enforcing a complete

immunization status policy and health education. Here, we are not just focusing only on the

current COVID-19, but we are taking all vaccine-preventable diseases into account. This is

because various diseases eradicated from the U.S. decades ago are emerging due to the

increasing number of travelers worldwide. Advocates against vaccines feel it’s a personal

choice and that it does not help stop the spread. However, they fail to see the scientific data

and the benefit to the global community.

According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), individuals must

get vaccinated even before traveling (CDC 1). Additionally, they should get vaccinated at

least one month before their expected visit (CDC 2). This means that scientific experts share

preexisting evidence-based guidelines about the importance of vaccination status before

travel. Presently, there is only one specific solution to infectious diseases. This solution is the

implementation of CDC’s guidelines for travel, enforcing complete immunization status when

visitors land in the U.S. The primary intervention will ensure that each traveler comes to the

U.S. with a medically certified immunization record. On the other hand, various groups in the

community might not get vaccinated due to various cultural, religious, or financial reasons.

However, it is crucial to understand the safeguard of the majority population who vaccinate

versus those who do not.

Another essential and evidence-based intervention that will cater to the needs of those

who would not be interested in getting vaccinated is health education. At the portal of entry

in the U.S., if individuals arriving receive formal health education about and protection

against infectious disease. All those who deny vaccination should be given health education

regarding disease control and prevention measures. A study evaluated the effectiveness of

health education. This study was performed in consultation with travel medicine and

international vaccination at the Reims University Hospital. It showed higher levels of

knowledge regarding disease control and prevention than the status before vaccination among

Hajj pilgrim adult participants (Migault et al. 30). Thus, health education would be an

effective and acceptable intervention to avoid spreading infectious diseases.

Benefits

There are various benefits of Immunization and health education for the individual

and the countries.

Safety for Everyone

The interventions of enforcing Immunization and health education will bring safety

for U.S. citizens and travelers. First, it will save the traveler from spreading novel and fatal

illnesses to our citizens. Additionally, it will keep the traveler away from several diseases that

he might have acquired during closed space air travel and transits at high-risk destinations.

Second, it will save the clinical costs born by the individuals and health systems. Moreover, it

will protect the travel destination from novel and previously eradicated diseases.

Less the burden on the healthcare system

Various studies have shown the effectiveness of vaccination and health education,

saving costs on health systems. One of those studies conducted in the U.S. by Hyle et al

showed that more individuals got vaccinated for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) before

travel (Hyle et al, p. 1) as it was a travel requirement. This study showed that vaccination

could reduce the impact and costs of the disease treatment. Hence, when vaccination status is

monitored, if a vaccine got invented for COVID-19, people will be more likely to remain

vaccinated. Hence, vaccinated individuals will be less likely to get sick and spread disease; as

a result, fewer people will get sick, and there will be less burden on the healthcare system.

Besides the costs, another benefit of Immunization will be the creation of herd

immunity among the population. When a certain number of individuals are vaccinated or

immunized against a disease, herd immunity protects the rest of the population. A study on

travelers’ diarrhea showed that even if one out of every ten individuals get immunized, herd

immunity is achieved (Rosa et al. 697). Thus, with this as well, fewer people will get sick,

and immunity will spread.

Conclusion

To sum up, there are various implications of banning air travel during the initial

policy implementation phase. The point to ponder is understanding how the policies are

ethically justifiable and effective. Evidence shows that vaccination and health education can

collectively benefit the air travelers and their destinations, The U.S. These interventions are

evidence-based, and they could cost-effectively reduce the disease incidence, prevalence, and

fatalities. Based on the literature, I recommend that the TSA mandate vaccination for

passengers and preventive health care education through a public service annoncement (PSA)

at the airports. This will benefit our nation by avoiding the spread of diseases, saving health

care costs, and building herd immunity.

Works Cited

Achenbach, Joel et al. “U.S. coronavirus fatality rate could be lower than global rate so far.”

Washington Post. March 2020. Retrieved on March 9, 2020. Retrieved from:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/coronavirus-mortality-

rate/2020/03/06/b0c4cdfc-5efc-11ea-b014-4fafa866bb81_story.html

Belluz, Julia and Steven Hoffman. The evidence on travel bans for diseases like coronavirus

is clear: They don’t work: They’re political theater, not good public health policy. 23

1 2020. 2 2 2020.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vaccines for Your Children. August 1,

  1. Retrieved on March 5, 2020. Retrieved from

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/travel-vaccines.html

Hyle, Emily et al. The Clinical Impact and Cost-effectiveness of Measles-Mumps-Rubella

Vaccination to Prevent Measles Importations among International Travelers from the

United States, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 69(2) 15 July 2019, Pages 306–

315, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy861

Mateus, Ana L P et al. “Effectiveness of travel restrictions in the rapid containment of human

influenza: a systematic review.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization vol. 92, 12

(2014): 868-880D. doi:10.2471/BLT.14.135590

Migault C et al. Effectiveness of an education health programme about Middle East

respiratory syndrome coronavirus tested during travel consultations. Public Health

173(August 2019), 29-32

Peak, Corey M, et al. “Population mobility reductions associated with travel restrictions

during the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone: use of mobile phone data.” International

Journal of Epidemiology 47.5 (2018): 1562-1570. Electronic.

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/index.html

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/travel-vaccines.html

Rosa López-Gigosos et al. Effectiveness of the W.C./rBS oral cholera vaccine in the

prevention of traveler’s diarrhea, A prospective cohort study. Human Vaccines &

Immunotherapeutics (2012) Vol 9, 2013 – Issue 3 692-698

Rosa López-Gigosos, Marina Segura-Moreno, Rosa Díez-Díaz, Elena Plaza, Alberto

Mariscal. Commercializing diarrhea vaccines for travelers. Human Vaccines &

Immunotherapeutics10:6, 2014 1557-1567

United_States_Government Accountability Office. AIR TRAVEL AND

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: Comprehensive Federal Plan Needed for U.S.

Aviation System’s Preparedness (2015) https://www.gao.gov/assets/680/674224.pdf

Wald, Gregory A. Travel Ban Updates: Temporary Ban of Foreign Nationals

Traveling From Mainland China Per Novel Coronavirus Outbreak; Additional

Countries Added To Travel Ban 3.0. 3 February 2020

World Health Organization. Strengthening health security by implementing the International

Health Regulations (2005). 2. WHO Press, 2008.

World Health Organization. Emergencies preparedness, response: Travel. 23 11 2009

https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/khvi20/current

https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/khvi20/current

https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/khvi20/9/3

 

Last Updated on July 31, 2022

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