First, review the handout on engaging a text for source support in academic writing: Paragraph Structure with Use of Text – 101 New.docx
Please complete a body-style paragraph around a specific main point that connects to and can be supported by one of your research articles related to your topic or issue (this should be 1 body paragraph from your outline -> either a cause, effect, or solution paragraph). The paragraph should integrate a paraphrase or a quote from the article (in the middle 1/3 of paragraph).
A paraphrase is a unique restatement of a short passage from the article (usually 1 or 2 sentences in length) and often benefits if you ‘restructure’ the sentence -> move info/phrases around. A quote must use quotation marks properly and use exact wording unless brackets or an ellipsis is used to show modifications to the quote. Both instances of source use must include proper in-text citation.
After choosing a passage to paraphrase, create a PIES paragraph that successfully integrates a paraphrase of the passage using proper in-text citation:
(P) Present point by creating a topic sentence that ‘connects’ or ‘sets up’ the source support (its point) in some way. In some sense the topic sentence can ‘echo’ the idea, but try to present a point that is ‘yours’.
(I) Immediately develop the idea by analyzing and explaining the idea (a few sentences).
(E) Engage the source -> provide an signal phrase, integrate the paraphrase/quote, address the meaning/use, and (#) if needed.
(S) Summarize by closing out the paragraph with a return to your main idea and analysis (a few sentences).
Use of text involves three steps: provide attribution, proper paraphrase, and address of the idea/info.
The paragraph should be at least 1/2 page in length and achieve the above aspects for full credit (guidelines on the above handout as well)
Paragraph Structure with Use of Text
(P) Topic Sentence-
(I) Follow-Up Development-
(E) Engage the text-
- Attribution Tag (optional)
- Paraphrase/Quote ENGAGE TEXT IN MIDDLE 1/3
- Address or analyze quote
(S) Connect Back to Main Point/Further Insight-
Rules for Paraphrase/Quoting – English 101
- Functions as support
- Centrally located – middle 1/3 of paragraph
- Short quotations only – 4 lines of text or less
- Citation and possible attribution required
- MLA Format
Example Approach to a paragraph with a quote/paraphrase:
- Identify a passage that includes a key idea from the text to quote/paraphrase:
Robert Hartmann McNamara authored a report on “Homelessness”, which presented that drug use amongst the homeless is prevalent. Research from the 80’s routinely presented a clear connection between homelessness and addiction (1027).
- Create a topic sentence that connects to or sets up the text support:
A key issue challenging the homeless community, and those working to help the homeless out of their situation, is the rate of addiction to drugs and alcohol.
- Follow up and develop the idea with youranalysis breaking down the point.
- Notice the set up of the text by attributing the author (sometimes title) of the source.
Robert Hartmann McNamara authored a report on “Homelessness”, which presented that
- Add in text citation after the source use – (1027).
- Close out paragraph by addressing the source use and returning back to your main idea for further analysis.
Put it all Together w/ Source Support Highlighted:
(P) A key issue challenging the homeless community, and those working to help the homeless out of their situation, is the high rate of addiction to drugs and alcohol. (I) Substance abuse can cripple one’s ability to maintain a common standard of living. Those suffering in the throes of addiction will struggle to hold a job and often lose connection to the support of their loved ones. This disconnect from a steady income, family, and friends, plus the cost of their addiction, may lead to a life on the streets.
Once there, the addiction can further manifest and take hold continuing a dangerous spiral. (E) Robert Hartmann McNamara authored a report on “Homelessness”, which presented that drug use amongst the homeless is prevalent. Research from the 80’s routinely presented a clear connection between homelessness and addiction (1027). This connection can be powerful and extremely challenging to break. (S) Even if addiction did not cause the homeless state, living without shelter, physical and emotional, creates an opportunity for substances to replace security and love.
When trying to rise out of a homelessness, the need to kick the addiction becomes paramount to become self-reliant again. The clear relationship between homelessness and substance abuse creates a challenging set of circumstances for both the individual and those attempting to intervene and help.
Remember the “Rule of Thirds”
Top 1/3 – your analysis of an idea stated through a clear topic sentence and a group of follow up sentences.
-main point of paragraph
-follow up and explain the idea
-why is the idea important?
-how does it connect to your readers or the target audience of your analysis
Middle 1/3 – Use of text support – quote/paraphrase to support or further the idea you introduced. This may include an attribution sentence/tag, the quote/paraphrase itself, and some analysis of the quote.
Final 1/3 – Returning to your analysis – you may continue to address quote in this final 1/3 but should return back to your main idea, restate it or analyze it in a new way.
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