Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Application

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The module unit aims to introduce the classical and advanced operating principles and main features of various types of relays and protection schemes. It also provides the simulation and mathematical modelling skills necessary to apply these relays and schemes to the protection of plant and systems including transmission, distribution and industrial networks.

Furthermore, it introduces novel schemes are considered as typical applications. The program provides knowledge on how to integrate digital technology in protection schemes. Finally, it describes the methods and measuring techniques used for testing of protective devices and complex protective solutions involving a greater number of protective devices.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Analyze various protection schemes, external and internal faults of alternators and motors.
  2. Develops numerical protection schemes and needs.
  3. Implement numerical protection schemes using microprocessors and digital relays as case study examples drawn from industry.


Propose – prepare research a paper and submit an Analytical / Case-study/Design, which covers the learning outcomes and follow standard IEEE double column format.

Equipment Protection:

Case studies/Design/Simulation on Over current and differential protection of transformers, Case studies on protection of alternators, bus bars, feeders, and transmission lines, and motors, and in an electrical network.


  • Identify the main components and features of a protection scheme and understand how to propose a modified/ updated method in transmission or distribution system.
  • Compare conventional and numerical relays to the protection of machines, bus-bars, transformers and feeders.
  • Elucidate the edge between the designs of protection schemes proposed for transmission or distribution in an industrial-commercial network and show the need to be modified to improve reliability and power stability. (Example: Perform a modified over-current grading study on a tree structured distribution network or Perform an accurate distance protection grading study on a transmission network)
  • Discuss the based on recent research for choosing multi-function numerical protection and control devices as compared to using conventional analogue electronic or electro-mechanical relays
  • Understand the challenges and the influence of modern technology to power system protection
  • Assess the ability of digital technology in the field of power system protection.
  • Result and discuss in your team on the proposed method edge over other previous methods
  • Conclusion/ benefits of the proposed paper
  • Practice and rehearsal of the proposed methods and ready for presentation and viva (marks are allotted individually) and submit to theme based conference/journals.


  • Appraise the relay settings necessary to protect a distribution, transmission or industrial/commercial network
  • Rationalize why a particular relay was chosen and explain how it can be applied within a network

Minimum number of Study references to be collected:

Journals: 06

Conferences: 02

Books: 02

Websites: 02

Industrial Handbook: 01

Any other authentic references are allowed

The Outlines of the report:

  • Abstract
  • Introduction & Problems Defined
  • Critical analysis of referred materials
  • Proposed technique/ modified technique
  • Results and Discussions and Conclusion and References

*** Words count = 2500 words.


Last Updated on January 5, 2020