Introduction to world history

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Global Empires in the cups of modernity

  1. The Americas
  2. The Aztec Empire 1325-1519
  3. Los Mexicas
  4. Tenochtitlan
  5. The Inca Empire, 1400-1532
  6. Quipu
  7. Machu Pichu
  8. Marti tine Empire of South and East Asia
  9. Mughal India
  10. Nur Jahan and Emperor Akbar
  11. DeIhi
  12. Ming China
  13. Examination System
  14. Forbidden City, Beijing
  15. Korean, Vietnam, Japan
  16. Han’gul System in Korea
  17. Tokugaya Shogunate

III. Land Empire of West Asia

  1. Ottoman Empire
  2. Suttan Empire
  3. Costantinople
  4. Iran
  5. Safavid Dynasty
  6. Isfahan
  7. Russia
  8. Tsar (“Caesar”) Ivan III
  9. Moscow
  10. Europe
  11. Mediterranean Sea: Italian City State
  12. Atlantic Ocean: Spain and Portugal
  13. Theocratic World View

Empire and Modern Science

  1. Epistemic Shift: From Theology to Scientific Faith
  2. New World Challenges to Old World Religious Powers
  3. Copernicus, 1543
  4. Galieo, 1632
  5. 16th and 17th European War of Religion as Epistemic Battle.
  6. Protestant: Individual relationship to God
  7. Catholic: Hierarchy and Mediated relationship to God
  8. Natural Philosophy
  9. Empiricism
  10. Scientific Method
  11. Royal societies
  12. Empires and Science
  13. Non-Western lands as the laboratory for the New Science.
  14. 18th c. voyages of James Cook.
  15. Carl Linnaus Natural System, 1730-1760s
  16. European limitations and assumptions shape their observations.
  17. persistence of pre-modern beliefs.
  18. European Science dependent upon non-Western knowledge
  19. European continues to borrow from Asian Empires
  20. technology and the “civilizing mission.”
  21. See Adas excerpt

III. Knowledge, efficiency and the market

  1. Rationalized Production
  2. Subsistence Economics to Monoculture
  3. Contradiction of liberal Democracy
  4. Who is “rational”?
  5. How are conflicts resolved?
  6. Why is the institution of marriage and nature of the family not subject to scientific critique?
  7. Why is the majority of the world excluded from the democratic state?

The Science of Society

  1. From Wise monarch to reasoning individual
  2. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, 1651
  3. John Locke, Two Treatises on Government, 1689
  4. Mary Astell, A serious proposal to the ladies for the advancement of their True and greatest interest. By a lover of her sex, 1696
  5. If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?
  6. 18th c. Enlightenment
  7. From nature philosophy to social philosophy
  8. Salon culture in Europe.
  9. Intellectual movements in non-western cultures
  10. Confucian revival of knowledge
  11. Islamic doctrinal controversies
  12. Bengali renaissance
  13. Ranmohan Roy, 1772-1883

III. From divine monarchy to constitutional demonocracy

  1. Voltaire: Satiric critique of ancient region
  2. Montesquieu: separation of powers
  3. Adam Smith: economic science
  4. Thomas Jefferson: Equality
  5. Rousseau: The general will
  6. Contradictions of liberal democracy
  7. Who is “rational”?
  8. How are conflicts resolved?
  9. Why is the institution of marriage and nature of the family not
  10. subject to scientific critique?
  11. Why is the majority of the world excluded from the democratic state?
  12. Abolition movement
  13. Women enlightenment philosophers
  14. many Wollstonecraft, vindication of the right of women, 1792

Revolution in the west and …

  1. The Science of society to political revolution
  2. From subject to citizen
  3. From faith to reason
  4. Political power to match economic power
  5. Contradictions of the modern liberal state
  6. Who get to be a citizen?
  7. Nationalism as the new religion
  8. Labor as the source of economic power

III. Examples of modern political revolutions

  1. English civil war and revolution, 1640-1688
  2. Bill of rights
  3. US war of independence, 1763-1783
  4. To preserve existing power, not to “revolt”
  5. Declaration of independence, 1776
  6. Federated colonies and militias
  7. George Washington
  8. Also, continuation of warfare between France and Britain
  9. Victory followed by a conservative constitution
  10. French revolution, 1789-1815
  11. True revolution at the center of the western world
  12. Revolt if the third estate
  13. national assembly
  14. declaration of the right of man and citizen
  15. liberty, equality and fraternity
  16. Women’s march in Versailles
  17. moving the action to the Paris and the stress
  18. Conservative constitution
  19. Radical revolution, 1793-1795
  20. Sans culottes
  21. society of revolutionary and republican women
  22. abolition
  23. the citizens’ army
  24. revolutionary justice
  25. Guillotine
  26. from the cult of reason to the cult of the supreme being.

The ideology of self-determination and nationalist identity

  1. Haitian revolution, 1791-1804
  2. St. Domingue: slaves and sugar can
  3. “whites” gens de couleur, slaves
  4. 1790, liberty, equality m fraternity for Haiti
  5. 1791, slave rebellion
  6. Toussaint L’ouverture
  7. Support by radial French revolution
  8. 1804, republic of Haiti
  9. Latin American Wars of independence, 1800-1824
  10. Like other American revolutions, sparked by events in revolutionary Europe
  11. Simon Bolivar
  12. Unified, but only against Spain
  13. Mestizo, Mulattoes, Criollos: Latin America
  14. Mexico. 1810-1821

III. French revolution continues: Napoleon Bonaparte

  1. Napoleonic wars
  2. Coup d’etat in the name of revolution
  3. Revolution cones full circle: 1804. Emperor Napoleon 1
  4. Modern Warfare
  5. Fighting for nation, not sovereign
  6. military conscription
  7. rationalized and centralized administration
  8. road building, standardized units, and terms
  9. the civil code, 1804
  10. commercialized warfare
  11. the continental system
  12. Continental Army sows and seeds of nationalism
  13. Germany: confederation of the Rhine
  14. Italy: the carbonari
  15. Latin America: French conquest of Spain
  16. Defeat
  17. Britain made stronger by the continental system
  18. Russian military disaster, 1812
  19. Battle of waterloo, 1815
  20. Congress of Vienna
  21. Restoration of dynastic families
  22. Balance of power
  23. Agreement of mutual protection, against revolution
  24. Ideal and language of freedom, equality and fraternity persist.
  25. Individual and national liberty
  26. Unlimited in theory
  27. Contested in practice

Carbon energy and global commerce

  1. Traditional view of the: industrial revolution”
  2. Sudden explosion of mechanical invention by individual men with no help from state
  3. Happened first in Britain and then replicated throughout the west.
  4. Greated wealth and progress for all
  5. New way to see this project
  6. Slow, overlapping and discontinuous evolution that required wealth derived from the Americas
  7. Cooperation and assistance from state was essential
  8. Machines initially less important to economic growth than traditional labor-bused production
  9. Long-term effects includes a widening of the gap between the rich and the poor and catastrophic damage to the environment. The beginning of the Anthropocene

III. First stage

  1. Wealth and nutrition food from Americas
  2. Agricultural revolution
  3. Growth on global commerce
  4. shipping, finance, insurance, merchants
  5. Availability of cotton from America, Turkey, India
  6. Growing demand
  7. Third big state in human energy use
  8. Domestication of fire
  9. Domestication of plants and animals
  10. Animate to inanimate: carbon fueled steam to do work
  11. Technologies
  12. Steam engine I (Newcomen. 1712)
  13. Steam engine II (James Watt, 1765)
  14. Spinning male (Samuel Compton, 1775)
  15. Steam factory production (Josiah Wedgwood, 1782)
  16. Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney, 1793)
  17. Steam and transportation
  18. Steamboat (Robert Falton. 1807)
  19. Railroad (The rocket, 1829)

VII. Coat and mining

  1. Family/child labour
  2. 12 hours, 7 days
  3. Extremely dangerous

VIII. The Anthropocene

Carbon energy, urbanization and the modern family

  1. Displacements
  2. Laborers
  3. Asian markets
  4. Laissez-faire
  5. Patents and legal prohibitions
  6. Tariffs
  7. Industrial discipline
  8. Control over imperial lands and labour
  9. Customer, especially for military

III. Urbanization

  1. Subsistence economy to money economy
  2. Subsistence
  3. Mode of human economy until modern period
  4. remain dominant in non-western world until 20th c.
  5. Produce to consumer
  6. Diverse agriculture, broad skills
  7. Family/village based
  8. No concept of “work”, life is work
  9. Cash/commercial economy
  10. Human can subsist with only a minority engaged in food production
  11. Produce for market, with cash as form of exchange
  12. Monoculture/specialized skills
  13. Separation of home from work. Individual wage earners
  14. Binary social categories
  15. Work time/ “free” time
  16. Cash exchange/use
  17. Individual work/family work
  18. Workplace/home
  19. Work/chores
  20. Adults/children
  21. Men/women
  22. Rural to urban
  23. Agricultural revolution
  24. Enclosure movement
  25. Role of state
  26. criminal law
  27. standards for size, quality
  28. military needs
  29. From substance economies and local markets to cash economies and global trade
  30. 19th c. abolition of selfdom in eastern Europe and Russia
  31. 1763: Prussia
  32. 1781: Austrian Empire
  33. 1861: Russian Empire
  34. Population growth
  35. Urban conditions
  36. Poverty and its effects now visible
  37. Density and lack of sewage system
  38. Disease
  39. Crime/darkness

Responses to industrialization and the modern family

  1. Responses to industrialization
  2. Worker/peasants
  3. Emigration
  4. vast movement of Europeans all over the world
  5. eg. The Irish potato famine, 1845-1852
  6. Protest
  7. Subsistence riots
  8. Luddites
  9. Labor movement
  10. strikes
  11. Revolution
  12. Middle class
  13. ideologizes
  14. liberalism
  15. socialism
  16. roman licism
  17. nationalism
  18. The family and gender
  19. “work” no longer goes in the home
  20. The home become a “haven” presided over by “angels”: women
  21. Origin at the “breadwinner”
  22. Descriptive of few, but prescriptive for all
  23. Almost all women continue to work
  24. Bat either labor not considered to be “work”
  25. Women’s work made harder by the conditions of urban life
  26. Throughout the 19th c. the largest sector of the western economy other than agriculture, is domestic service, an almost entirely female occupation

Mid-century revolts and civil wars

  1. Contradiction at the 19th c. state and empire
  2. Class
  3. Gender
  4. Global capitalism and imperialism
  5. 1848
  6. France
  7. Restored monarchy
  8. Second republic
  9. Second empire
  10. Germany
  11. Austrian empire
  12. Dual monarchy, 1867
  13. Britain
  14. Chartist movement
  15. Reform acts: 1832, 1867, 1884

III. The United states civil war

  1. National unification
  2. Industrial warfare
  3. The right of women: 1848
  4. Les femmes libres
  5. Seneca falls
  6. Taiping rebellion
  7. Christian missionaries and despair in the countryside
  8. Heavenly kingdom of great prace
  9. Anti-manchu (Qing)
  10. Western military evid
  11. India’s first war of independence (sepoy rebellion, Indian mutiny)
  12. British east indies company
  13. Christian missionaries in diverse India
  14. End of Mughal dynasty
  15. Beginning of British Raj

VII. Revolt by indigenous and African Americans

  1. Yucatan rebellion, 1847 and beyond
  2. mayan
  3. Metis rebellion, 1867, 1885
  4. resisting British
  5. Morant Bay, 1865
  6. British violence

The second “industrial revolution”

  1. “Second industrial revolution”
  2. Most of the world never went through the “first”
  3. Shift in power from Britain to Germany and the US
  4. Speed and virtual reality.
  5. Technologies
  6. Electricity
  7. Power transmission
  8. Light
  9. Sound
  10. telephone, 1876
  11. phonograph, 1877
  12. telegraph
  13. 1844. Baltimore to Washington D.C.
  14. transatlantic: 1869

iii. Trans-pacific, 1902

  1. Wireless telegraphy (radio), 1895.
  2. Transit
  3. Electric trolleys and trains
  4. Individual speed: bicycles
  5. Steel
  6. Vertical cities

e.g. New York life building, Chicago, 1894

  1. Chemicals
  2. Consumer products
  3. Drugs

Eg. 1808 national archives

  1. Fertilizer
  2. Explosives
  3. Petroleum
  4. Carbon energy better than coal
  5. Motors
  6. Motor cars
  7. Aero planes

III. Mass consumption and culture

  1. Advertising and print culture
  2. Shopping
  3. Credit
  4. Health and eugenics
  5. Mass entertainment
Carbon energy and global commerce

Global commerce

  1. Acceleration
  2. Mass, carbon-based production vastly increases the number of goods
  3. Same forces lower their price
  4. Cheap iron, steel, pesticides, fertilizer increases agricultural yield which is shipped around the world
  5. Telegraphs allow price comparison and quicker market transactions
  6. Rapid global movement
  7. Carbon-based water travel
  8. Steamships, coal then oil
  9. Atlantic first crossed by steam in 1838, Pacific by 1853
  10. Time to cross Atlantic
  11. In 1492 (sail): over 2 months
  12. In 1900 (steam): about 5 days
  13. Carbon-based land travel
  14. Railroads
  15. By 1880s, western built and financed railroads all over the world
  16. Increasing speed
  17. Urban railroads
  18. usually electric with coal-fired generators
  19. Refrigerated railroad cars
  20. Motor cars
  21. Individual mobility
  22. Traffic chaos
  23. Carbon-based air travel
  24. All powerful humans

III. Shrinking of the globe

  1. The annihilation of time and space
  2. The suez canal, completed 1869
  3. American “manifest destiny”
  4. Transcontinental railroad, completed 1869.
  5. Panama Canal
  6. British, French, American rivalry
  7. About 30,000 workers died
  8. Completed 1914
  9. Tran Suberian railway
  10. 9,289km, longest rail line in the world
  11. Completed 1916
Global commerce and imperialism
  1. Imperial commerce
  2. Source of raw materials and captive markets
  3. Non-western world “de-industrialized.”
  4. Accelerated transit and information makes conquest and control easier
  5. Compare earlier agrarian empires
  6. Cheap and abundant food for the west, famine for the east
  7. Global famines: 1875-1878, 1986-1902, 1911
  8. Modern state power required to industrialize
  9. Example: Egyptian cotton industry
  10. Western view of imperial capitalism
  11. Joseph Schumpeter
Midterm review

Modern global history

  • Nature of history

Is there a global community today?

Where should its story begin and why?

  • The “Ancien Regime”
  1. Agrarian empires
  2. Maritime
  3. Land
  4. Dynastic rule
  5. Theocratic
  6. Subsistence economies
  • Choose three different regions of the pre-modern world and describe their political, religious and economic nature. Compare each with the others.
  • European empire and the Columbian exchange
  1. Europe as compared to other pre-modern societies.
  2. Disadvantages?
  3. Advantages?
  4. New Pangaea
  5. exchange of living matter and cultural practices/knowledge
  6. Demographic boom/demographic catastrophe
  • This course argues that the modern world can be traced back to the Columbian Exchange? Why?
  • The Atlantic slave Trade
  1. key to European wealth
  2. Originally centered in the tropics: sugar can
  3. Impact on Africa
  4. Mass production for a mass market
  • Compare American slave-based economics with wage-based factory production in 19th c. Europe.
  • Global commerce: 15th -18th c.
  1. Europeans: violent sailors
  2. market advantages of American conquest
  3. global political conquest
  4. example: fall of Ming dynasty
  5. example: European protestant revolution and wars of religion
  • Describe the development of global maritime circuits. Which nations led the European advances in Global market in the 16th and 17th c. and why?
  • Empire and modern science

Technology to empiricism

War of religion

Europeans depended upon non-European environments as laboratories and non-European as guides/teachers.

Science and the economy

  • How did ideas about categories of humans, such as race and gender, develop and change in the context of empire and the Scientific revolution?
  • Political revolutions in the west

The “science of society” and the development of modern liberal theory

The contradictions of the liberal state

Examples in Europe and the Americas

  • Nationalism

Role of French revolution and the Napoleonic war

Nationalism as a form of religion

  • How are Latin American independence movements linked to the French revolution, Napoleon and the republic of Haiti?
  • Carbon energy ho
New way of seeing the “industrial revolution”

The Anthropocene

Steam engines: coal and iron

Electricity, steel, chemicals and oil

Mass culture

Effects

  • Describe the great reversal in fortune between Asia and the west brought about by the industrialization of Europe?
  • Urbanization

From subsistence to cash to cities

Changes in ways of understanding the world and the family

Urban environments

Responses
  • How does the role of women change in an industrializing and urbanizing economy?
  • Global commerce: 19th and early 20th c.

The great acceleration

Market

Transport

Communication

The shrinking of the globe

Imperial extraction and forced consumption

  • Describe all the ways with historical examples, that space and time were “ annihilated” by the technical, geographic, and economic development of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

 

Last Updated on June 11, 2020 by Essay Pro