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Introduction to Biology

Introduction to Biology Part A instructions: Answer each question in Part A. Your response should be three to six complete sentences per answer. You can receive partial credit for an answer. You should spend about 40 minutes total on Part A. (60 points total)

  1. How are ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds formed? Describe the electrons involved in atoms in each of these bonds.
  2. What are cell cycle regulators, and what do they do? Name two types of cell cycle regulators.
  3. In Menders pea plants, purple flowers are dominant to white flowers, and a single gene controls this trait. What are the possible phenotypes and genotypes for the trait of flower color? Use P to represent the dominant allele and p to represent the recessive allele. What phenotype would result from each genotype?
  4. Briefly describe the three main types of RNA and the function of each.
  5. How did viruses evolve? Describe three hypotheses of viral origins.
  6. List four adaptations seen in Australopithecus afarensis fossils that enabled bipedalism.
  7. Describe the structure of a neuron. How does its structure facilitate its function?
  8. What are vaccines, and how does vaccination work?
  9. What’s the biosphere? Define three components of the biosphere.
  10. Define r-strategists and K-strategists and give two examples of each.

Introduction to Biology Part B Instructions: Select two (2) questions In Part 3 to answer. Your response should be six to eight complete sentences per answer. You can receive partial credit for an answer. You should spend about 20 minutes total on Part 8.40 point’s total)

  1. Describe the structure and function of the plasma membrane. Discuss the most commonly used model to explain the organization of the plasma membrane. What are the two main types of membrane proteins?
  2. What proteins are involved in DNA replication? Explain the process of DNA replication, detailing the proteins involved and their roles, (rem a molecule of double-stranded DNA to bye molecules of double-stranded DNA.
  3. A researcher identifies a large, isolated population of birds. There’s no gene flow between this population and other populations. Mating occurs randomly, and there are plenty of resources available to the population. A single gene controls whether the tail feathers of this bird are dark or light-colored. The dominant dark allele is abbreviated T and the recessive light allele is abbreviated t. The researcher observes 1.000 birds and sees only 90 with light-colored tail feathers. What are the frequencies of the TT, Tt, and tt genotypes? What are the frequencies of the T and t abates? Show your work.
  4. Because plants are sessile, they have many ways they can adapt to their environment. Name three types of tropisms stimulated by different environmental cues. Explain how plants detect and respond to each type of Stimulus, and give an example of each type of tropism.
  5. What are osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes? Describe bone remodeling in a healthy person and in a person with osteopenia or osteoporosis. What causes osteoporosis, and what problems does osteoporosis present?
  6. Differentiate between different zones of marine ecosystems. How do abiotic factors impact the organisms that live in each Zone?

Last Updated on January 2, 2022

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