History of Music

Questions/Outline for your paper


Biography Questions: (This portion should be 2-3 pages long, please do not discuss pieces here only biographical information)

When and when was he born?

Who were his parents and what did they do for a living?

How many siblings did he have, were they musical?

Who were his teachers and musical influences?

What was his religion?

Did religion influence his music?

If so, how?

Where did he go to school?

Where did he work and for whom?

Was he married and to whom?

Did he and his wife have children?

Did his children study music and with whom did they study music?

Did he have psychological disorders or illnesses?

What were some interesting things about his life or events that happened in his life that are unique?

Where and when did he die and how?

Where is he buried?

Who did he influence or who were some of his most famous pupils?


Music Period, Genres, and Characteristics of his Style:  (1-2 pages, please use your book and my lectures for this portion of the paper)


In which period did he live?  (Romantic, Nationalism, Impressionism, Primitivism, Expressionism, America Music and Jazz, Music post 1945)

Write one paragraph about Historical Context

What types of genres did he compose (provide a list, For example, Beethoven composed 9 Symphonies,

1 Opera, 1 Mass, 32 Piano Sonatas, 5 Piano Concertos, etc.)?

What were his stylistic characteristics of his compositions and compositions from the time period (please use sentence form for this section andlist characteristics from your bookfrom which my lecture is taken)?


Your Own Analysis (1-2 pages, please do not use 1st person)


Choose one or two pieces by your composer which you like (please use examples from your book would be best- the book is on reserve in the library)

Define the Genre of the piece

Describe the pieces (characteristics, forms, styles, instrumentation)

Give some of your own thoughts but do not use the 1st person.  (For example, you could say:  “The piece

has lively rhythms.”  Rather than saying:  “I like the lively rhythms of this piece.”).




Please use 4-5 Sources and cite them in your paper.  Also, include a bibliography.   A paper without citations and a bibliographywill not be accepted or graded.

Paper for FA 122 A

History of Music

Dr. Kimberly Hess



  • Length: 5 pages. Use a minimum of five sources.  Include text citations and bibliography.


  • Pick a composer from the following list:
  • Conservative Romantics: Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Frederic Chopin, Felix Mendelssohn, Johannes Brahms
  • Radical Romantics: Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner
  • Eastern European Nationalists: Peter Tchaikovsky, Bedrich Smetana, Antonin Dvorak
  • American Nationalists: George Gershwin, Charles Ives, Aaron Copland
  • Jazz: Scott Joplin, Bessie Smith, Louis Armstrong
  • Impressionists: Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel
  • Expressionists: Arnold Schoenberg,
  • Primitivism: Igor Stravinsky
  • Music Post 1945: John Cage, George Crumb, Edgar Varese, Stephen Reich


  • The paper should contain three main components;
  1. I) biographical as outlined in the list of questions I will send you (about 2 pages in length).
  2. II) a list of genres used by the composer and characteristics of music from the period in which he lived (1 to 1.5 pages) (please use your book and my lecture for this section.

III) musical analysis and descriptions of a piece or two by your composer (1 to 1.5 pages).  Please use your book for this portion.  Choose a piece found in your book.  A copy of the textbook is on reserve in the Library. Please DO NOT write this section (or any section) in the first person.


  • Grading:
  1. Biographical content 25%
  2. Musical Genres and Characteristics content 25%
  3. Musical Analysis and your own observations 25%
  4. Did you follow the outline we discussed, Organization, prose, grammar, punctuation, citations/bibliography 25%


Sample Citation Styles

Any time you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or reference a source, you must cite that source in a parenthetical note or a footnote and append a bibliography, which, depending on the discipline, may be called “Works Cited” or “References.”

All citations share some basic components, including the title of the work being referred to, the name of the work’s author(s), the publisher, and the date of publication. Beyond these general requirements, styles of citation vary by discipline and by professor’s preference. In the humanities, the most commonly accepted citation style is that of the Modern Language Association (MLA). In the social sciences, the American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely used. Historians typically employ the footnote style described in The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). Each scientific discipline has its own protocols and formats, usually available in a style manual produced by the discipline’s scholarly organization. You’ll see that many academic disciplines encourage the use of in-text parenthetical citations rather than footnotes.

Once you join a department as a concentrator and begin your junior year work, the department should provide you with information about expected citation formats and practices in the discipline. Often, individual professors will provide you with information about their preferred citation format.

The examples that follow employ four different citation styles. For the specifics of each style, you should consult an official style manual, because the rules for citation vary greatly for different kinds of sources. For example, books are cited differently from articles, which are cited differently from e-mail correspondence. You’ll need to consult a style manual to determine the proper format for each source type. (A list of recommended style manuals may be found at the end of this section.)

Example 1: (MLA)

The MLA requires a parenthetical citation in the body of the text that corresponds to an entry in the Works Cited at the end. A citation for a quotation from a book in the MLA style is formatted this way:

As Frank Lentricchia argues, The Waste Land should not be understood as a logical sequence of events but as “an intellectual and emotional complex grasped in an instant of time” (194).

The parenthetical citation “(194)” refers to a page number from a book by Frank Lentricchia. Publication information about the book would be found in the Works Cited, where it would be formatted this way:

Lentricchia, Frank. Modernist Quartet.New York: Cambridge UP, 1994.

Example 2: (APA)

The APA also requires parenthetical citations in the body of the text, though these citations typically include the author and the date. A citation for a summary of an article in the APA style is formatted this way:

Studies that examine links between cardiovascular and mental activity must understand that cardiovascular activity itself comprises a suite of variables (Van Roon, Mulder, Althaus, and Mulder, 2004).

The parenthetical citation “(Van Roon, Mulder, Althaus, and Mulder, 2004)” refers to an article by the four listed co-authors. Publication information about the article would be found in the References, where it would be formatted this way:

Van Roon, A., Mulder, L., Althaus, M., and Mulder, G. (2004).Introducing
a baroflex model for studying cardiovascular effects of mental workload.Psychophysiology, 41, 961–981.

Example 3: (CMS)

CMS, or “Chicago,” is a style in which citations are presented in footnotes. A citation for a quotation from an article in the Chicago style is formatted this way:

Nineteenth-century bohemians were more dependent on mainstream culture than might at first appear. As one scholar puts it, “Bohemia’s self-designated types always existed in symbiotic relation to bourgeois culture rather than in opposition to it.”1

The footnote 1 would refer to a note at the bottom of the page containing full publication information and formatted this way:

  1. Christine Stansell, American Moderns: Bohemian New York and the Creation of a New Century (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2000), 18.
Electronic Sources

An electronic source is any source that exists primarily in electronic form and is accessed primarily through electronic means. Websites, online periodicals, online books, e-mails and postings, and even CD-ROMs are all forms of electronic sources. But be careful: not all materials found through electronic means are necessarily electronic sources. For example, if a PDF of an article you found through a database on the library’s website was originally published in a printed journal, then the article doesn’t qualify as an electronic source. In short, there’s a difference between electronic sources and sources that are accessed electronically.

When citing an online source, your citation should contain the following elements:

  • the author or editor (if available),
  • the title of the text (if different from the name of the website)
  • the name of the website,
  • the name of the site’s sponsor or associated institution or organization,
  • the date you accessed the site,
  • the electronic address (URL).

For example, a short work posted on a website would be formatted in MLA style as follows:

McCort, Dennis. “Kafka and the Coincidence of Opposites.”Romantic Circles Praxis Series: Romanticism and Buddhism. Feb. 2007. Romantic Circles. 21 Apr. 2008 <www.rc.umd.edu/praxis/buddhism/mccort/mccort.html>.

This citation includes not only the author’s name and the work’s title, but also other important information, including the date of the work’s publication on the site (February 2007) and the date the website was accessed (21 April 2008).

The published guides of the MLA, APA, and Chicago styles include detailed descriptions of how to cite most electronic sources. As explained earlier in this booklet, the emerging nature of this new technology means that conventions are forming quickly, and the variations among citation styles vary considerably. Be sure to look up the appropriate form of citation and to consult your professor about any points of confusion.

Recommended Style Manuals

For complete coverage of MLA, APA, and Chicago citation styles, you should obtain the most recent edition of each style’s official manual: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition, 2009), the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition, 2009), and The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition, 2010). For an online guide to these styles, visit the Library website, at library.princeton.edu/help/citing.php. A good commercially published guide is A Pocket Style Manual, by Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers (2011), which includes brief but substantial overviews of the MLA, APA, and Chicago styles.






Last Updated on February 11, 2019