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Discussion on Firm and Non homicide

Respond with at least 100 words each to 4 other students post

STUDENT 1-Firm J. Good

In this movie, Dave, Jimmy, and Sean dealt with a childhood tragedy that they will never forget especially Dave. Now they are adults and Jimmy is struck with another tragedy his 19-year-old daughter was murdered. This brings back thoughts of his childhood and this is also how social theory can play a role to where he grew up around crime. You always here psychologist say that when you suffer a bad thing as a child you yourself could cause the same thing to other people because you’re in that state of mind where you think it is ok.

I read an article called Psychology today and it read ” Social learning theory combines cognitive learning theory (which posists that learning is influenced by psychological factors) and behavior learning theory (which assumes that learning is based on responses to environmental stimuli)” ( I could see this in the movie to where Jimmy was dealing with psychological factors from things that happened as a child to what has happened to his daughter. This took Jimmy over the edge.

In this movie, Dave was acting funny to where I could see people thinking maybe he did kill Jimmy’s daughter. He told Jimmy he hurt his hand by moving furniture and then told Sean he did it in a Garbage disposal. With all the missing pieces Jimmy turned to what he knows best and that is crime, since he was in prison and around criminals. He didn’t think to dig further into it since he was already having a psychological issue due to his daughter being murdered and no one arrested yet.

In our readings this week it said: “While any level of association with delinquent peers increases the risk of delinquent conduct, gang membership produces more frequent, intense, and reinforcement for delinquent behavior”( Akers, r. and Jensen, G.). This is what the kids that actually killed Jimmy’s daughter were dealing with. They were part of the social theory and being around crime it was a normal thing they saw so they ended up killing her and leaving her to be found. The didn’t know any better and this is where they ended up in a sad situation of murder.


Akers, R., and Jensen, G.(N.D) Empirical status of social learning theory of crime and deviance: The past, present, and future.

Lorenz, R., Hoy, J. G., and Eastwood, C. (producers) Eastwood, C. (director) (2003) Mystic River [Motion Picture] USA: Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc.

Social learning theory retrieved 2017 from

Student 2- The Firm – L Stanley

Social control theory and social learning theory have successfully produced a foundation on the attributes adult criminal behavior and juvenile delinquency.  Social Control Theory (Hirschi, 1969), is the bedrock in criminal justice for use in evaluating relationships and how the correlate with criminal activities.  According to Hirschi (1969), there are four bonds an individual has with society these are: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.  Accordingly, Hirschi (1969), argues that when one or more of these bonds to society become weak an individual is at a greater risk of delinquent behavior.  The associated reasoning behind this is that when a bond is weakened an individual places increased focus on personal interests.  Social control theory is a generalized theory that is applicable to all persons therefore, scholars such as Akers, Krohn, Lanza-Kaduce, &Radosevich (1973), and Loeber&Loeber (1986), have attempted to expand upon this theory by placing focus on relations with one’s parents and the community.

Robert Akers et al. (1973), expanded the thought process of the social control theory with the institution of the social learning theory to argue that delinquency is a learned behavior.  Akers et al. (1973), argues that juveniles model the behavior of their parent(s) and therefore is a contributing factor specifically associated with juvenile delinquency.  Accordingly, if a parent is participating in criminal offenses the juvenile will begin to imitate behaviors of the parent because the actions of the parent have been deemed ‘acceptable’.  Loeber&Loeber (1986), refer to this style of parent-child relationship as a “medium-strength predictor” indicating that a juvenile will engage in delinquent behaviors.

In the film Mystic River (2003), the relationship Just Ray previously had in criminal activities is shown to trickle down into the lives of his children, Brendan and Ray Jr.  We know that Just Ray had previously been in prison, had committed robbery, and his friends were Jimmy as well as the Savage boys, none of whom are upstanding citizens.  Jimmy does not like Brendan, his daughter’s boyfriend, when Jimmy is asked about this dislike he states that the reason is because Just Ray ran off and left his pregnant wife therefore he assumes that a child of his would exhibit the same behavior (Mystic River, 2003).  Jimmy’s concerns are validated when it is revealed that Ray Jr. and his friend are who killed Jimmy’s daughter.

The parental relationship with a juvenile can be strengthened with the use of positive parental reinforcement (Akers et al., 1973).  This relationship is evident between Dave and his young son throughout the film.  Dave was abducted and molested as a child although Dave attempts to bury this memory this continually haunts him (Mystic River, 2003).  During the film it is also said that Dave never actually returned from this traumatic event (Mystic River,2003).  Rather than project his negative feelings and emotions onto his young son Dave uses positive engagement with his son.  Dave walks his child to and from the school bus every day, practices baseball with him every day in the back yard.

Further argued by Akers and Jensen (n.d.), is that those who commit crimes feel justified in doing so.  Jimmy partakes in acts of revenge against Just Ray and Dave by murdering them.  Jimmy justifies the murder of Just Ray because he testified against him.  This resulted in Jimmy spending time in prison and not being there for the death of his first wife.  Jimmy also feels justified in the murder of Dave because he believes Dave murdered his daughter.  While Dave’s previous experience also justifies his behavior in the film.  Dave’s interactions with his son show that he wants to protect his son.  However, Dave’s prior experience is also what fuels his anger and his acts of murdering a child pedofile (Mystic River, 2003).


Akers, R., & Jensen, G. (n.d.). Empirical status of social learning theory of crime and deviance: The past, present, and future. Retrieved from

Akers, R., Krohn, M., Lanza-Kaduce, L., &Radosevich, M. (1979). Social Learning and Deviant Behavior: A Specific Test of a General Theory.American Sociological Review, 44(4), 636-655. Retrieved from

Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California.

Loeber, R., &Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1986). Family Factors as Correlates and Predictors of Juvenile Conduct Problems and Delinquency. Crime and Justice, 7, 29-149. Retrieved from

Mystic River (2003). Retrieved from


Student 3-Andrew Ray News article

( do not just critique, start a discussion, add to etc. Do not focus on opinion)

The topic I would like to discuss this week is rape.  Rape is a very vulnerable topic to talk about. Statistically speaking and not including males, 20 million out of 112 million women in the United States have been raped during their lifetime.  That is 18% of women, that sounds like a lot to me.

I found an article, regarding a 16-year-old Rockdale County middle school student who was charged with statutory rape for having sex with a 14-year-old boy.  Police reported, there was video footage showing the two teens entering the boys’ bathroom together.  They emerged out of the bathroom 10 minutes later.  When questioned by the school, both teens admitted to having consensual sex on the bathroom floor.  The 16-year-old girl admitted that she was the aggressor, asking the teen boy to get on the floor with her, after they started kissing.  A misdemeanor statutory rape charge was filled as a juvenile court complaint and the 16-year-old girl was turned over to the custody of her parents.

I dislike rape cases, because they are extremely tricky.  The reason was talked about in the class the “she said and he said” You do not know if it was actual rape or consensual or not, until you have some hard evidence.  The 16-year-old girl was charged with a misdemeanor statutory rape. “According to Georgia state statute, a person commits statutory rape if the victim is at least 14 years old but less than 16 and the suspect is 18 years of age or younger and is no more than four years older than the victim. (Garner,2014)” Would the charge be dropped?  It is a hard case to deal with, especially if it was fought in court.  You had both teens admit that the sex was consensual.  Then you have the 16 -year-old girl admit she was the aggressor.  Then you must ask, was the boy forced on the floor? It seems from the article, that this was consensual sexual activity between both parties.  “However, not all sex among minors is covered by such so-called “Romeo and Juliet” exceptions. Accordingly, it is often the case that where two minors engage in sexual contact, each has technically committed statutory rape.  This raises a potential problem: can and should statutory rape laws be used against members of the class they were designed to protect? (High, 2016)”

In my opinion, I do not find this case to be a criminal act.  The article made the story sound consensual and not forced.  There obviously, could be other stipulation to define this case as criminal.  But from the article I do not see that being the case.  If you were a police officer would you arrest the suspect? No, I would not.  I would do exactly what the officers did, turn over custody to the parents.  If you were a judge, would you allow the case to go to trial? No.  This would be a waste of time and I feel the charges would be dropped.


Garner, M. (2014, September). Rockdale girl, 16, accused of statutory rape of boy, 14. Retrieved September 27, 2017, from

High, A. (2016). Good, Bad and Wrongful Juvenile Sex: Rethinking the Use of Statutory Rape Laws Against the Protected Class. 1-52. Retrieved September 27, 2017, from .


  1. (n.d.). United States Department of Justice National Sex Offender Public Website. Retrieved September 27, 2017, from

Student 4- Adkins news article 

( do not just critique, start a discussion, add to etc. Do not focus on opinion)

I am going to take a different approach to this discussion board and article, as this federal case involves a case that I was involved in. It was the first criminal case in my career that went federal an entirely different world compared to local courts.

On April 5, 2011, I made a traffic stop on southbound I75 for a minor traffic violation.  I approached the suspect vehicle on the passenger side and made contact with the driver, Rodney Brown, 33, Toledo, Ohio and his female passenger, Selma Hasanovic, 21, Detroit, Micihigan.  As soon as contact was made with Mr. Brown he produced a small bag of marijuana and provided me he Ohio ID card and informed me that he did not have a driver’s license.  Mr. Brown was very persistent that is all the drugs he had on his person and asked if we could just hurry up with the tickets so that he could be on his way.  Mr. Brown was more than willing to provide me with information.  However, the more I spoke with Mr. Brown, I observed Ms. Hasanovic just looking straight ahead and never making eye contact with me or engaging me at all in conversation.

Through the course of my traffic stop and investigation the pair was separated.  Once away from Mr. Brown, I began to develop a relationship with Ms. Hasanovic who was reluctant, however did provide me with her information.  Ms. Hasanovic was found to be a Croatian immigrant who was entered as a missing endangered person from Michigan.  Ms. Hasanovic through her emotional distress provided me the information that she was not free to leave the custody of Mr. Brown.  Ms. Hasanovicat this time was being transported from Toledo to Indianapolis for a pre-arraigned sexual encounter with a client of Mr. Brown’s.

Through the course of the investigation over the next seven hours, this minor traffic stop developed a human trafficking ring that lead from Detroit to Toledo to Indianapolis.  Agents from the Federal Bureau of Investigation were involved.  Mr. Brown was placed in the local county on local charges to hold him pending additional charges.  Search warrants were served at several homes in Detroit and Toledo, and hotels in Indianapolis that early morning based on information recovered from cell phones and a laptop computer recovered in Mr. Brown’s vehicle during the traffic stop.  Mr. Brown and his associates were operating on using Croatian nationals as human traffickers and controlling their every movement.

Over the next eight months evidence and suppression hearings continued prior to trial.  A plea deal was struck with Mr. Brown attempting to violate the Mann Act (which prohibits interstate transportation to engage in prostitution) and illegal possession of a firearm after having previously been convicted of a felony.  Mr. Brown was sentenced to 51 months in federal prison by the United States District Court Northern District (,2012).

As an involved part of the investigation, additional charges were sought to include kidnapping, firearms offenses and human trafficking.  A major hurdle that played a factor into our prosecution of the case was that Ms. Hasanovic, our main victim and witness was found dead prior to trial from an apparent heroin overdose in suburban Toledo.  Once our victim was deceased the federal prosecutor sought a plea deal which was accepted.

In 2011, human trafficking was still in its infancy to law enforcement in southwest Ohio.  Following this case, a lot of attention from the media, legislatures and state officials began to develop means to tackle the problem.  More investigative tools became available to law enforcement, along with stricter penalties for those involved. The Polaris Project was developed to provide information and assistance tools to law enforcement.  In Ohio, about 1,000 minors are forced into sex trade each year, and 800 foreign nationals are forced into the sex trade in Ohio each year (Frolik,2011).

Human trafficking is in everyday society in every community, however it is so difficult to find.  Those who control it are so good at talking trying to get law enforcement to focus on the minor things, overlooking the big picture as Mr. Brown attempted with myself.

In a recent court ruling, The United State Supreme Court upheld a ruling by lower court that websites such as can’t be held liable in facilitation of child exploitation and human sex trafficking (Nanos, 2017).  Three Massachusetts women sued and Craigslist after they were entered into the sex trade at age 15 on these websites.  The argument was that shielded the users from law enforcement technology to reveal the identity of those posting the adds (Nanos, 2017).

The Mann Act from 1910 was used and upheld as part of the plea deal in this case.  Part the Mr. Brown’s legal defense team’s argument was the lack of the ability for Mr. Brown to face his accuser in a court of law due to her death.  Having a personal interest in this case, I wanted more time for Mr. Brown.  Having in depth knowledge of inner circle of Mr. Brown and his co-defendant’s 51 months was not enough time.  As a police officer the arrest was made, with charges amended to the federal courts.  The prosecutor’s worked the case to the best of the ability considering all the circumstances that surrounded the case.  Co-defendant’s in Mr. Brown’s case received more time than Mr. Brown that were charged with drug and weapons charges based on the service of the search warrants.


Frolik, C. (2011, September 27). Sex trade thrives by exploiting internet. Dayton Daily News. Retrieved from

Nanos, J. (2017, January 9). High court rejects case by sex-trafficking victims against Boston Globe. Retrieved from

Neubauer, C. (2011, April 23). Sex trafficking in US called epidemic. Washington Times. Retrieved from

Polaris. (n/d). Polaris freedom happens now. Retrieved from

United States Attorney’s Office. (2012, May 30). Toledo man sentenced to more than four years in prison on human trafficking and firearm charges.Federal Bureau of Investigations Northern District. Retrieved from

Last Updated on June 20, 2021

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