Critical Discourse Analysis Theories to Examine Donald Trump’s Speeches

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CRITICAL DISCOURSE 26

USE OF CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS THEORIES TO EXAMINE DONALD TRUMP’S SPEECHES

Abstract

This study sought to explore the use of critical discourse analysis theories to examine Donald Trump’s Speeches aimed at offering the audience substantial knowledge- based concerning the vital evaluation of political discourse. The paper has offered justification, limitation, significance, and limitation of the study. It has designed a literature review, research methodology, and research analysis. The data for the research is from Trump’s speech derived from the internet. The paper has used the qualitative aspect to analyze the describable elements of the language used in political dialogues. The study offers a conclusion and future recommendation for the study.

Use of Critical Discourse Analysis Theories to Examine Donald Trump’s Speeches

1.0 Introduction

A language is a multifaceted tool that promotes efficient transmission of knowledge and influences the execution of tasks. People use words in almost all aspects of the lives and culture to transmit knowledge, form bonds, and order action. Communication is a skill that is unique among human beings, and it enables us to transfer different kinds of information that helps to increase our knowledge (Ahmadian, Azarshahi, & Paulhus, 2017). People use language to socialize and bond with other community members such as relatives, friends, fans, and lovers. However, communication could also influence the formation of negative bonds that would create enmity, segregation, marginalization, and oppression. Discourse analysis is the practice of analyzing different uses of language using diverse conceptual models that would examine the meaning of messages. Critical discourse analysis is an essential tool that identifies the different attributes of communication and uses various theoretical models to determine the generalizability and applicability of such new evidence to different social and political contexts (Bonilla, 2016). A language is a crucial tool in the social and political fields in society because it allows individuals to take various identities and responsibilities. This paper explores the use of critical discourse analysis theories to examine Donald Trump’s Speeches aimed at offering the audience substantial knowledge-based on the vital evaluation of political discourse.

1.1 Justification of the Study

It is essential to understand that language plays diverse functions other than communication. This study seeks to meticulous linguistic examination of Donald Trump’s speeches with the aim to unlock the central ideological hypothesis and power associations. Various reasons can justify the use of Trump in the study. First, Trump is a renowned global leader. Secondly, he is the president of the most powerful nation in the globe. Thus, his political philosophies, if any, have repercussions for the rest of the globe. Thirdly, his speeches have not been extensively examined linguistic as evidenced by the accessible literature that mainly centered on the statements made by former American president, Barrack Obama. Nonetheless, there is little attention given to Trump’s speech despite his incoherent and banal statements (Almurashi, 2016). The study seeks to fill this linguistic gap by exploring how interpersonal and empirical meanings recognized through the structures of modality choices and transitivity structures.

1.2 Significance of the Study

Critical discourse analysis as a tool can explore discourse comprehensively. It helps to study the interaction between society and language, reflecting on the issues of power, prejudice, inequality, and dominance. Political speeches help to create people with authority and power in society. The speeches analyzed to realize the political objectives, stance, and opinion of a speaker. The purpose of exploring this political discourse is to disclose the methods that Donald Trump’s uses to persuade listeners to believe in his ideologies and support him.

The importance of this study is the researcher seeks to enhance the knowledge on Critical Discourse Analysis, particularly in political discourse. The researcher anticipates achieving advantages from knowing the discourse system expressed in political discourse in Trump’s speech. Also, the study hopes to offer a reference for the readers to gain knowledge about Critical Discourse Analysis.

1.3 Background Information

A language is a crucial tool in the social and political contexts of society because it allows individuals to take various identities and responsibilities. It will enable individuals to speak as experts in different fields such as medicine, law, business, and entertainment, among others. Languages acquire their meaning from the practices or contexts of their usage. Such methods include different things, for example, committee meetings, debates, brainstorming groups, lectures, and political rallies, among others. Discourse analysis comprises evaluating the contexts and practices to gain an understanding of the communication messages. Many scholars of discourse analysis have focused on the meaning and reaction that language would influence. Other essential areas in the research about discourse analysis include distinct language styles and the types of words used for different purposes. Discourse analysis helps to analyze literature by assessing its relationship with behaviors, interpersonal associations, belief systems, and perspectives (Skrede & Hølleland, 2018). These aspects are crucial for evaluation because they aid in the development and provision of various socially identifiable personalities.

Discourse analysis involves evaluation of the seven basic tasks of language, which include significance, practices, or activities, identities, relationships, politics or distribution of social goods, connections, and sign systems as well as knowledge. Individuals use language to show the significance of various things by communicating their importance to other individuals. This aspect helps in shaping the views and attitudes of individuals towards different elements in life. Significance is also a statistical tool that allows examining various aspects of communication with a hypothesis in research. Practices involve regular endeavors in communities, institutions, and cultures that design or combine efforts in unique ways to attain specific goals. Individuals use language to show that they are engaged in different kinds of activities or practices. Language and traditions are interconnected, and they influence each other’s existence continuously over time. Individuals also use language for recognition and assigning various identities that determine the roles of individuals within particular contexts. Individuals enact their identities through speaking or writing in ways that attribute them to different fields or areas of life. Language can also be used to determine the nature of relationships that individuals have or would like to establish with their listeners. Communication helps in the formation of social bonds that influence different kinds and levels of association between individuals. Another task of literature is politics, which involves the distribution of social goods. The qualities of commodities or other elements in society depend significantly on the word used. Communication approaches confer various conditions to different social aspects, for example, whether they are adequate, average, good acceptable, or substandard. The sixth function of language is that of connections where communication is used to identify the relationship between various elements. Many things lack an inherent connection and relationship with each other, and individuals have to use language to specify such associations. Another essential role of speech is the generation of sign systems and knowledge. Individuals use words to establish, alter, sustain and revise various aspects of communication and sign systems to generate new theories as well as knowledge claims regarding society.

Critical discourse analysis is a branch in the study of contemporary linguistic. The newly developed branch of study started taking its root at the end of the 1970s (Hart, 2017). Critical discourse analysis entails the study of interdisciplinary language that elucidates social challenges in various fields such as pedagogy, politics, sociology, and communication. It considers language as a social practice that cannot separate from social institutions. Language is contributes to the creation of social relations and objects. The analysis helps to explain the discourses revolving around the constitution and social constitution. Since the birth of critical discourse analysis, the political arena has been of great significance. The critical discourse analysis discloses ideology and power that implied in political discourses. It discusses how language helps to express a sense of worth and belief. The study of Donald Trump’s speech in the structure of Halliday’s systematic functional grammar based on its three meta-functions will be significant and valuable.

1.4 Context

Various theories can be used in critical discourse analysis. Also, there are numerous political speeches of Donald Trump’s, such as inauguration and announcement speech. Depending on the statement analyzed and the theoretical framework used in the study, the results observed can be different.

1.5 Scope and Limitation

This study will explore the various themes emerging from political speeches and contexts to determine the general perspectives and attitudes of leaders and thew electorate. It will also analyze the different backgrounds and prevailing conditions that influenced such remarks. The scope of the study is limited to critical discourse analysis elements that emerge from various presidential speeches regarding peace, security, and global terrorism (Gornostayeva, 2016). Also, there is a limitation on the time the researcher explores political declaration.

1.6 Research Questions

What are the language characteristics that emerge in Trump’s address?

1.7 Research Objectives

  1. To find the features of Critical Discourse Analysis that entail topic and theme, stylistic style, and rhetoric styles.
  2. To analyze the elements of Socio-Cognitive Approach to reveal the characteristic of Donald Trump’s speeches.

1.8 Definition of Key Terms

Speech – It is the power of communicating or expressing thoughts by speaking

Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) – It is a unique technique in discourse analysis that focuses on elements, discursive conditions, and results of abuse of power by elite groups and institutions.

2.0 Literature Review

This study will use theories about a domain, which use different approaches to research. The inquiry will use Halliday’s systematic functional grammar theory to offer linguistic tools for analysis. According to Banks (2019), the method is useful for analyzing diverse discourses from the perspective of its three meta-functions. The research will adopt various flexible tools to ensure that they can continuously adapted to specific issues or topics within the setting of the study. Most of the methods that will be applied will be of a social and communal nature, which provides these tools with flexible definitions. These theoretical approaches will act as thinking devices for guiding the research process to explore various kinds of data and attain diverse research objectives. This conceptual model will help in conducting a critical evaluation of the study subject to explain the complex functions and processes of language that influences the execution of actions. This approach will also help to understand various kinds of messages, interventions, and crucial matters that could interest different groups of citizens.

2.1 Discourse

There are different definitions of discourse discussed in various books. Each description of discourse aims to simplify the main aim of discourse. The term derived from the Latin word discourses, which means speech or conversation (Reisigl, 2017). In simple terms, discourse is a type of social dialogue that can be written or spoken. In linguistic, it is the procedure of socio-cultural linguistic rooted in social construction. Discourse is only in the form of text or spoken words. Thus, discourse is a form of language used in public to offer speeches that deliver beliefs and ideas in social events. The speaker expresses it as belief and thoughts. Through it, the speaker can provide the use of a language, and it’s a purpose.

Critical Discourse Analysis

2.2 Critical Discourse Analysis

The study of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) explains the association between uses of words with social diversity and social context. Most explanation of CDA is concerned with social inequality. It entails gender, religious aspects, and other philosophies. Also, it focuses on how political discourse is created through linguistics elements to influence and present the power in the community. According to Han (2015), CDA has features such as influential ideologies, intertextuality, and current social challenges. Moreover, CDA serves as a tool that explores the linguistic within the social circumstance. It is an approach to reveal the political power and social supremacy in social construction.

Previous Studies of Critical Discourse Analysis

2.3 Previous Studies of Critical Discourse Analysis

American structuralism Linguistic called Z .S. Harris first referred to Discourse Analysis in an article on language that he published in 1952 (Achugar, 2017). He argued that the discourse is a personification of member events. Harris discussed communication strategies and syntactic rules in terms of context and semantics. This article mainly discusses the association between social situations and discourse.

Mitchell utilizes semantic examination to explore the association between the environment and participants. In mid-1960s, discourse analysis recognized as an independent discipline. Fowler was the first person to introduce critical discourse analysis in Language and Control in 1979 (Tannen, Hamilton, & Schiffrin, 2015). He established the fundamental ideologies of discourse analysis, where he argued that it is improper to explore discourse independently without considering social, cultural, and historical factors. Fowler stressed that language has social associations and ideological meaning.

In 1985, Van Dijk pointed out whether utterances or sentences exemplify discourse. The two forms of language organization forms include discussion and texts. The discussion focuses on historical, cultural, and social situations while text emphasizes on the structure. He explored dialogue from the characteristics of modality, vocabulary, and mood that disclose the intention of the speaker. Dijk utilizes the theory in the study of politics, news, and academic discourse (Mohammadi & Javadi, 2017). Stubbs asserts that the discourse examination applied in exploring discourses that presented in verbal or written forms. Wodak’s language ideology, power, language, and Dijik’s prejudice in discourse mark the establishment of critical discourse analysis.

In An Introduction to Functional Grammar, M.A.K. Halliday examines the functional approach. The technique emphasizes the thematic structure, language function, and information structure. The book does not only illustrate the language structure but also discloses rationales from the angle of social purpose. The systematic functional grammar is an ideal tool that can be useful as a viable tool to explore discourses. Halliday highlighted the central form of speech is demanding and giving (Rachman, Yunianti, & Ratnadewi, 2017). The exchange of information occurs between participants.

In 1989, Fairclough did a study on political discourse ideology, and power. He suggested a three-dimensional structure that is on the foundation of social semiotics and systemic functional linguistics. The socio-cultural practice, language discourse, and text have close associations. Fairclough thinks dialogue is a social practice. Critical discourse analysis replicates that the social system decides discourse authorities’ social structure and discourse pattern.

Kress highlighted that critical discourse analysis construes the essential association of discourse in 1990. The critical discourse examination can explore collective oral languages, such as political dialogue, newspaper, official language, and advertisement. The speaker’s value, view, and stance are articulated. In 1989, Wodak explained that philosophy erected through discourse. The encoding and decoding of discourse is influenced by cultural and social perspective. Both of the scholars agree that discourse imitates ideology and power, while critical discourse analysis explores the association between society and conversation.

Political Speech and Trump’s Inaugural Speech

2.4 Political Speech and Trump’s Inaugural Speech

The political discourse can be described as classic discourse, entailing slogan, speech, and replies given in press conference. The political statements as a social practice play a great function in the realization of the speaker’s objectives. According to Rohmah (2018), the American President’s statement is a representative of the political discourse. Unlike a normal discussion, political declaration is a type of discourse that takes the stand of the speaker, elucidates his view, and pronounces his proposal. The essential aspect of a statement is to achieve political objectives. Statemen’s can establish a close relationship with the audience to gain their recognition and support.

Trump’s inaugural speech demonstrates president’s attitude about global events and internal issues. Constructing a good image is essential for winning the trust of the audience. In his speech, the President declares novel guidelines and policies entailing aspects such as social security, political affairs, diplomatic strategy, and economic situations. According to Blake (2017), the speech highlights strong self-belief and undertakes to take efficient measures. It is essential to convince individuals to alter their ideology. Thus, the speech doesn’t only need to meet the demand of the speaker. Also, it should consider the feelings of the audience. The subject of political speech relates to the actual globe. Power relation chooses the discourse system. The speaker must utilize language skillfully to interact with the listeners and stimulate their passions. The choice of words and sentence structure needs to be suitable. Christianity is rooted deeply in the mind of the people of America. Therefore, the Bible is usually quoted in political speeches as it can change the behavior and ideology of people.

The Theoretical Structure of Halliday’s Functional Grammar

2.5 The Theoretical Structure of Halliday’s Functional Grammar

The critical discourse analysis based on various theories, particularly on Halliday’s systematic functional grammar. He claimed that language is an instrument for a human statement. The method forwards three meta-functions: interpersonal function, ideational function, and textual function that study language from the phase of semantics. It is a practical and operable technique to explore disclose.

The ideational function entails the speaker using his experience of the real world to deliver his speech and influence the masses. The language is useful in describing the real world, involving individuals outside and inside knowledge that constitute diverse processes. Transitivity can comprehend the function as the structure interprets experience into a set of procedure forms. The arrangement entails six process that include mental, material, vernal, existential, and relational. The choice of procedure replicates people’s observations about behaviors and experiences.

The interpersonal function builds and upholds social relations. It explains an individual’s position and identity that reflect domination and authority. A speaker can realize this function by use of personal pronouns, modality, and mood. The interpersonal feature is useful in expressing one’s determination, faith, and will. Modality is a vital element of interpersonal service and can reveal an individual’s attitude and cognition. Halliday’s modal operators divide modality into three levels. There is a low, middle, and high modal verb. The analytical technique is an efficient technique to explore discourse than modality. Personal pronouns help to show the position of the participants, role, and power in the communication. The decision of a personal pronoun establishes the association between the listener and the speaker. “We” is used by Trump in his speech is a first-person plural pronoun.

Textual function explains the organization of information in a coherent and unified manner. The three components of textual function entail cohesion, theme, and information structure. The theme structure is the element that serves as the point of departure from the message. Halliday categorizes themes into three classes: simple, clausal, and multiple themes based on the complexity of the sentence. The simple themes include a single structure aspect such as a prepositional, adverbial, and nominal phrase. Various themes entail a topical theme, experimental, and interpersonal theme. The clausal theme is that clause that appears first in the clause complex and is classified into a marked and unmarked theme.

The Examination of Trump’s Inaugural Speech

2.6 The Examination of Trump’s Inaugural Speech

Trump took an oath of office on January 20th 2017, in Washington in the United States of America. The President’s speech is of paramount importance in the globe, so it is precious and consequential to explore this political speech significantly. The main reason for Trump’s introductory speech is to achieve political objectives. To gain the support of the audience and make them accept novel procedures, Trump utilizes language proficiently. The theory can be used as a hypothetical structure to study political speech. The study explores the statement from the features of modality, transitivity, coherence, and personal pronouns. The ideology replicated from his language features.

3.0 Research Method

This chapter clarifies the technique of the research also the processes of the analysis. There are significant explanations about the procedures of the investigation. The section explains how to conduct and frame the study.

3.1 Research Design

In this research, the descriptive qualitative technique regarded as a suitable approach in the procedure of scrutinizing the data. The qualitative research contains different methods and fact-finding inquiries of diverse types. Therefore, the qualitative method is proper for the study as the findings are unbiased, with the researcher having no control over variables and data. The researcher explores the data of CDA using Halliday’s systematic functional linguistics. The data is in the form of sentences, and this makes the study classified as descriptive qualitative. The information classified as a type of political discourse taken by the researcher to reveal the thematic structure, language function, and information structure.

3.2 Data and Data Source

The source of the data for the study was the textual transcript of Trump’s speeches. The data of the study are in the form of phrases, clauses, and sentences. The researcher utilized the whole text to investigate the linguistics features using the CDA theory. This study explored three statements that were delivered by Trump during his campaigns and ascendency to the American presidency. The statements in this study delivered within two and a half years, and they marked the start, middle, and end of his presidential run (Ponton & Larina, 2016). The criteria for selecting data included the following: First, the speeches marked pivotal moments in his campaign as they are intended for large audiences. The first condition aim to ensure that the speeches selected recognized the values that were meant to appeal for the biggest audience and lessen them to the lowest common denominator. That entails diverse regions of the American holding different values to diverse levels of significance, such as illegal immigration around the Mexican/American border. By choosing the speeches that directed at the national audience, the research hopes to capture the values that are essential to all of the President’s audience rather than pronounce those speeches customized to highlight benefits of local significance. Secondly, the statements encompassed the extent of his campaign from announcement to acceptance. The objective is to explore the diversity and constituencies in his representation throughout the period of his presidential campaign. The values most expressed in his speeches usually set in Trump and his listener’s ideology.

The transcripts of Trump’s inaugural speech downloaded from the internet. According to Chanturidze (2018), the data set entailed online transcriptions from reputable news sources such as CNN, Politico, and The Wall Street journal. The accuracy of the speech was determined by listening to the video recording. Also, each video speech compared with the transcribed speech. A transcription of Trump’s inaugural speech downloaded from a CNN article that was published online on January 21st, 2017. Trump’s announcement speech transcription was downloaded from a Wall Street Journal article from an article that was published online on June 16th 2015. His acceptance speech transcription article was published online on July 22nd, 2016, from a Politico article.

This study will use the qualitative aspect to analyze the describable elements of the language used in political dialogues. It will help to analyze various patterns and structures of such speeches to determine the essential elements or concepts. This study aimed at investigating the conversations within political contexts, which makes qualitative research sufficient for identifying primary themes in such discourses. The data obtained from political discourses placed under different classes that would help researchers to recognize the various macros, micro, and superstructures.

3.3 Data Collection

3.3.1 Instrument

The main instrument for the study is notes, laptop, transcription software, and the video of Trump’s video.

3.3.2 Technique of Data Collection

The researcher takes the following steps in gathering data, as follows:

  1. Finding the data

The data gathering started with searching the video and textual transcript of Donald’s Trump speeches. The data can be seen from the official website of Trump and generally, the internet. The textual data is vital for the validity of the research.

  1. Watching and Validate Data

The next procedure of collecting data included watching the video to validate its transcription. The step ensured the applicability of the text.

  1. Categorize the Data

The researcher categorized the data in the aspects of transitivity, modality, personal pronouns, and coherence.

4.0 Data Analysis

Discourse Analysis of Donald Trump’s Inaugural Speech

4.1 Discourse Analysis of Donald Trump’s Inaugural Speech

Donald Trump took office on January 20th in 2017 in Washington in America. The speech of the American President is of great significance in the globe. Therefore, it is essential and valuable to explore the political speech critically. The main reason for studying the inaugural address is to attain political objectives. Trump uses language proficiently to make people accept his policies and gain support from Americans. The theoretical framework for studying political speech can use Halliday’s systematic functional grammar. The aspects that can be used to analyze the expression include modality, transitivity, coherence, and personal pronouns. Trump’s ideologies and beliefs analyzed from his language features.

4.2 Interpretation of the Speech

  1. Transitivity

It is an incredible symbol of an identical function that shows an individual’s view, stance, and attitude. The preference of procedure can reflect the intention of the speaker. Trump utilizes relational and material processes more frequent in his speech.

  1. Material Process

The material processes emerge eighty-one times in the President’s speech. The method helps to inform the audience essential message. The process is vital for him to explain American moves and accomplishments. The process can provoke the listener’s patriotic passions and persuade them to generate a great future. The method helps the people of America will trust the government and recognize new policies. “Because today we are not simply transferring power from one regime to another, or from one party to another but we are transmitting power from Washington DC and giving it back to you, the people.”

Trump asserts that the administration will side with the Americans as power belongs to the citizens. He uses language to show that the ruling party and the President are concerned with an individual’s interests. “Giving” and “transferring” demonstrates that the administrators utilize formal influence on behalf of the citizens. The speech can stir the listener’s zeal and influence a sense of pride. He asserts, “For too long, a small group in our country’s Capital has enjoyed the incentives of government while citizens bear the cost.”

Trump emphasizes that there are a large number of poor people who suffer poverty and hardship. The American people work hard, but they achieve few benefits. Trump utilizes “bear” to show that he knows the difficulties that the public passes through. The language helps the audiences realize that Trump has devoted themselves to changing injustices and social inequality. Thus, citizens persuaded that they will achieve much with the Trump administration than any other president.

  1. Relational Process

The relational process is objective, permanent, and authoritative. Trump says, “This is your day. It’s your celebration. And this, the United States of America, is your country.” The statement is a challenge for every American to rise to the occasion and fight for a better life. It shows that all Americans are masters of their country and play an essential role in the globe. The state can only become powerful and prosperous if Americans work hard and dedicate themselves to service. The nation requires everyone’s contribution, and every citizen is responsible for protecting and building his country. Through his speech, the President wins audiences to support and trust.

  1. Existential process

Trump says, “When you open your heart to patriotism, there is no room for prejudice.” The President is aware of numerous black Americans that suffer and discriminated by the white. He knows that citizens have been unfairly treated. He uses this situation to gain more supporters. The President argues that the condition needs to change, and social justice realized. Thus, the audiences accept new political philosophies conformably.

  1. Verbal Process

Trump reminds Americans of what the Bible says. “How good and pleasant it is when God’s people live together in unity.” It is common for politicians to quote the Bible in political speeches. They understand that that Religious faith entrenched in the hearts of Americans. Trump suggests policies using heavenly power that strengthens the belief of the audience.

  1. Modality

Modality expresses an individual’s desire that reflects their inclination and faith. It is seen regularly in political speech. High modality highlights an individual’s firm stance and attitude, while middle modality specifies mitigatory mood. Trump utilizes pattern to articulate his feeling and views. For example, the word “will” emerges forty-one times, but “must” only occur three times in the inaugural speech.

Trump is inclined to utilize middle modality that can predict the future and illustrate the decree. The president builds great assurance to excite the listener’s passion. In the meantime, he influences audiences to recognize his attitude and idea that changes their philosophies unnoticeably. Trump makes a serious pledge that he dedicates himself to America. He says, “I will fight for you with every breath in my body- and I will never, ever let you down.” In this case, “will” means that he expects that he can live up to the expectations of the Americans. The middle modality ensures impartiality and steers clear of argument and controversy. The audience can easily accept his opinion. He says, “We will not fail. Our nation will thrive and prosper again.” The use of “Will” can weaken subjectivity leaving more space for listeners to make the right choices. The message can persuade Americans to believe that they will flourish.

“We must shield our borders from the ravages of other nations stealing our companies, making our products, and destroying our jobs.” The modality demonstrates Trump’s authority and charisma. The statement shows that it is the responsibility of every American to guard their territory and defend their jobs (Rashid & Jameel, A2017). The use of “must” provokes audience’s will and enhances their courage. The personal pronouns are used to articulate interpersonal meaning. The association between audiences and the speaker is made easy to choose diverse personals.

There are more than forty sentences in the speech containing the first personal pronoun that establishes a peaceful atmosphere. “Our” and “We” appear ninety-six times in the statement as he seeks to curtail the distance with listeners. He stresses that they have a common interest, aim, and stance. The philosophy of the audience is swayed and controlled by Trump using the first personal pronoun. “We” make everything looks natural and acceptable and furnishes the psychology of the viewers. Thus, their philosophies are assimilated and preserved. Trump seeks to dodge the negative report of his egotism. So he utilizes “they” to call Washington elites who ignore normal American’s miseries. The objective is to draw a clear difference with the elites and take his stand. It demonstrates that the President has outstanding persuasive skills.

  1. Coherence

CDA focuses on the discourse’s content and structure. The most apparent aspect of Trump’s speech is parallelism that makes the content compactness. The listeners can feel the mightiness and grandiose of the language he uses in the speech. He discusses topics that are dear to the American people. Trump talks of the border, employment, and welfare issues. Trump states his ideas clearly to address the challenges and offer solutions. According to Hassan (2018), the parallel form can enhance the credibility of the speech and stimulate the sentiments of the audience. It constructs the confidence of Americans and encourages their spirit of making America great again. He uses “Together” to stipulate that the audience should participate in repairing America. The cooperation and solidarity of citizens can help achieve their dreams. He hopes that individuals can inherit the good traditions of the ancestors and make great achievements.

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

The study analyzed the critical discourse analysis of president Trump’s introductory speech using systematic functional grammar by Halliday’s. Language explored from the angles of modality, transitivity, coherence, and an individual pronoun. The language outline can replicate individual’s observation, stance, and attitude that reveal his objective. The speech persuades individual’s minds and alters their philosophies. According to Wodak (2015), Trump selects relational processes and material processes to highlight the declaration that he can change the current circumstances. To create relations with the audience, Trump utilizes high modality and personal pronouns. The president uses brief sentences, simple words, and declarative mood. The methods is comprehensible by the audience and suitable for achieving Trump’s political objectives. Future research on critical discourse analysis should consider socio-cultural and the socio-historical background. The enhancement of exploring capability can ensure people comprehend discourse well. Also, researchers should use other analytical techniques such as Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework, socio-cognitive approach, and Wodak’s discourse-historical techniques.

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