You must download the Critical Reading Questions document from the Instructions, Tools, and Resources page to refer to as you are guided through this activity.
You will conduct a brief critical analysis of one of the following articles associated with the topic you have chosen for this session, Topic A or Topic B. The articles can be accessed from the Critical Analysis: Topics and Readings page in the Assessment Details module.
Topic B Article: Howell, K. H., Cater, A. K., Miller-Graff, L. E., Schwartz, L. E., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2017). The relationship between types of childhood victimisation and young adult criminality. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 27, 341-353. doi: 10.1002/cbm.2002
Respond to each of the items below as directed. Be sure that each item is numbered correctly in your response, corresponding exactly to the numbers below. Remember to paraphrase, as plagiarism rules apply. In addition, please provide the page number of the article where the information for your answer can be found. Point values are indicated in parentheses following each item.
Topic B: Howell et al. (2017)
- Based on the Critical Reading Questions document, are there any concerns about the title? Explain. (1 pt.)
- According to the Critical Reading Questions document, when you read an abstract, the purpose of the study and the methods of the study should be clear. In other words, after reading the abstract you should know who the participants were, why the study was conducted, what the participants did during the study, and what the outcomes of the study were. Additionally, the language used to describe the study should be comprehensible even to non-experts in the field. Do you think the abstract written by Howell et al. (2017) satisfies these criteria? Explain by indicating which aspects of the abstract are satisfactory, and which need improvement. (3 pts.)
- Below is the start of a logic map for the Howell et al. (2017) article.
Problem: Only a few studies have examined multiple types of childhood victimization making it unclear which types of victimization are the most reliable predictor of future criminality. Previous studies also did not control for other variables that are known to contribute to criminality, such as gender, substance use and mental health. Therefore, it is unclear whether this relationship is affected by other environmental and intrapersonal factors.
Research Question: Will criminality in adulthood be associated with childhood experiences of physical violence,
witnessed violence, neglect, property crimes, verbal abuse, and sexual abuse after controlling for gender, substance use, and mental health?
Literature Review: Previous research suggests that children who experience trauma are likely to exhibit mental health problems, aggressive behavior, and criminality in adulthood (p. 342). [Statement A] [Statement B] [Statement C] However, not all children who were exposed to violence become perpetrators as adults (p. 343). Therefore, it is important to investigate other factors that may be contributing to this relationship such as gender, substance misuse, and psychopathy (p. 343). In sum, the background literature does suggest that there is a positive relationship between childhood victimization and future criminal behaviors in adulthood (p. 343).
According to the Critical Reading Questions document, the literature review should provide a logical sequence of prior research findings in order to set the stage for the current study. There are three statements missing from the literature review section of the logic map. Find three important ideas from the article’s literature review that will provide a clearer understanding of the logical sequence that Howell et al. (2017) use to build their case. You will need to paraphrase and provide a page number citation. In addition, you must make sure that the three statements preserve the logical order of the literature review. Each statement should be only ONE sentence in length. [Note that there are multiple correct statements that can be used to establish a logical sequence.] (6 pts.)
- The next step in the logic map is the research (alternative) hypothesis. Using your own words, state the research hypothesis of the Howell et al. (2017) study. (2 pts.)
- Does this study use a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods methodology? How do you know? Explain. (1 pt.)
- What type of research designdo the authors of the study use (experimental, quasi-experimental, etc.)? How do you know? Explain. (1 pt.)
- According to the Critical Reading Questionsdocument, the participants in the study should be representative of the intended population and not biased. In addition, the sample should be large enough to provide sufficient power. Based on the sampling method used by Howell et al. (2017) and the number of participants in the study, evaluate the representativeness of the sample and determine if the sample size is appropriate. Be specific and incorporate concepts from Module 2. For sample size, provide all parameters entered into G*Power (alpha level, power level, effect size) the test family and test chosen, and the number of tails. State the minimum sample size needed and then determine whether the sample size is either too small, sufficient, or too large and explain your decision.(4 pts.)
Representativeness of Sample:
Sample Size: The data was analyzed using a hierarchical linear regression analysis. It is okay if you are unfamiliar with hierarchical linear regression.
In a hierarchical linear regression, there is a dependent variable and several independent variables. The independent variables are not entered into the regression simultaneously, but in steps. Simply enter the following parameters into the G*Power software after choosing F Test for the test family and Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R2 increase for the statistical test. Also select the appropriate type of power analysis.
Effect size: .15
Alpha level: You decide
Power level: You decide
Number of tested predictors: 6
Total number of Predictors: 9
- What are the independent variables in this study? Identify each along with how they are operationalized for the study for each model. (3 pts.)
- What is the is the dependent variables (DVs) used in this study? First, describe how adult criminal behavioral is conceptualized, and then identify the corresponding operationalization to produce the dependent variable. (2 pts.)
- The findings for a study need to “answer” the research question and either support or fail to support the research (alternative) hypotheses. What do the results of this study reveal in relation to the implied research question and hypothesis? (2 pts.)
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