BIOLOGY 100 Exam 2

BIO 100

BIOLOGY Exam 2 Study Guide

 

Exam Information

 

Exam 2 covers lesson 7-12. Before you click the assessment link to take the exam, note the following:

 

  • Make sure you have the password. Once you click the link, you will be reminded that you are allowed only one attempt to take the exam. Clicking OK also means that you agree that you are using a PC and Internet Explorer.
  • Once you click OK, it is considered an attempt. You must take the exam.
  • The exam is timed. You will have 40 minutes for part 1 and 40 minutes for part 2.
  • You must take both exams in one sitting. In other words, you cannot take part 1 on Friday and then part 2 the next day. Failure to take the exam in one sitting results in an automatic zero.

 

 

Study Tips

 

Biology consists of many terms and concepts to remember. To help you learn the terms, I suggest making flash cards. Some advice for the flash cards:

 

  • Make cards for the vocabulary terms.
  • Include diagrams when possible.
  • Create cards for concepts that involve “lists”. For example, make a flash card that asks for the characteristics of life, the steps of the scientific method, etc.

 

In addition, make sure you:

 

  • Label diagrams (e.g., parts of the plant, cell, etc.)
  • Take the practice quizzes and work through the activities in Mastering Biology.
  • Read through the previous postings and lessons.

 

Objectives, Concepts, and Key Words

 

For exam 2, you should be able to address the objectives, concepts, and key words from lessons 7-12.

 

Lesson 7:

Objectives:

  1. Describe the basic structure of a chromosome.
  2. Explain why it is necessary for mitosis to result in identical daughter cells.
  3. Describe the cell cycle.
  4. Describe the events that occur in each phase of mitosis.
  5. Define the term cytokinesis and describe the event in an animal cell and a plant cell.
  6. Explain what causes a cell to grow uncontrollably.
  7. Define the following terms: tumor, cancer, benign tumor, malignant tumor, and metastasis.
  8. Define the following terms: sex chromosomes, autosomes, somatic cells, gametes, diploid, and haploid.
  9. Describe the events that occur in each phase of meiosis.
  10. Explain the similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis.

 

Concepts:
  1. Define the term daughter cell.
  2. Name the three functions of mitosis.
  3. Differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction.
  4. Describe the structure of a chromosome.
  5. List and describe the events that occur during each phase of mitosis.
  6. Compare and contrast cytokinesis in animal and plant cells.
  7. Explain how disruptions in the cell cycle relate to cancer.
  8. List and describe cancer treatment options.
  9. Differentiate between a somatic and sex cell.
  10. List and describe the events that occur during each stage of meiosis I and meiosis II.
  11. Define the term homologous chromosome.
  12. Define the terms haploid and diploid.
  13. Contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis with respect to the number of chromosomes that result.
  14. Explain how independent assortment and crossing over contribute to genetic diversity.

 

Key Words:

  1. Chromosome structure
  2. Sister chromatids
  3. Cell cycle
  4. Cytokinesis
  5. Cancer
  6. Meiosis
  7. Homologous Chromosomes
  8. Gametes
  9. Independent Assortment
  10. Crossing Over
  11. Nondisjunction
  12. Chromosomal Abnormalities

 

BIOLOGY Lesson 8:

Objectives:

  1. Define the following terms: self-fertilization, cross-fertilization, true-breeding organisms, hybrids, P generation, F1 generation and F2 generation.
  2. Define and distinguish between the following pairs of terms: heterozygous versus homozygous, dominant versus recessive allele, genotype versus phenotype, and phenotype versus genotype ratio.
  3. Explain how traits are passed from generation to generation, including monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.
  4. Provide phenotypic and genotypic ratios from a monohybrid or dihybrid cross.
  5. Compare different inheritance patterns, including dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, pleiotropy, polygenic, multiple alleles, codominance, and incomplete dominance.
  6. Explain how pedigrees are used to determine the inheritance pattern of specific human traits.
  7. Explain Mendel’s laws and apply each to the process of inheritance.
  8. Explain why linked genes do not follow Mendel’s laws.
  9. Explain why sex-linked diseases are more common in male humans.
  10. Explain how genetic variation in a species occurs, including mutations and inheritance patterns.

 

Concepts:

  1. Describe the life and major experiments of Gregor Mendel.
  2. Explain Mendel’s Law of Segregation.
  3. Given parental genotypes for a monohybrid cross or dihybrid cross, be able to:
  1. Identify the potential gametes of the offspring.
  2. Predict the F1, and F2 generations by a Punnett square.
  3. Identify homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, and heterozygous individuals.
  1. Provide the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for the results of all crosses.
  2. Explain Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment.
  3. Perform a test-cross to determine if an individual was homozygous dominant or heterozygous.
  4. Given a family history of a specific trait or disease, construct a pedigree and analyze the results.
  5. Define the term incomplete dominance and provide an example of a character that exhibits incomplete dominance.
  6. Define the term codominance and provide an example of a character that exhibits codominance.
  7. Explain why characters with multiple alleles do not follow Mendelian genetics.
  8. Use a Punnett square to solve blood typing problems.
  9. Explain the concept of polygenic inheritance.
  10. Define the term pleiotropy.
  11. Explain how the phenotype of an organism is affected by codominance and incomplete dominance.
  12. State the chromosome theory of inheritance and explain how whole chromosomes behave like Mendel’s traits.
  13. Explain the concept of linked genes.
  14. Describe how gene mapping is accomplished by using data from crossing over.

 

Key Words:

  1. Gregor Mendel
  2. Mendel’s Law of Segregation
  3. Monohybrid and Dihybrid Crosses
  4. Allele
  5. Homologous Chromosome
  6. Punnett Square
  7. Dominant and Recessive Traits
  8. Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
  9. Testcross
  10. Family Pedigree
  11. Incomplete Dominance
  12. Codominance
  13. Pleiotropy
  14. Polygenic Inheritance
  15. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
  16. Linked Genes
  17. Gene Linkage Maps
  18. Autosomes
  19. Sex-Linked Genes

 

BIOLOGY Lesson 9:

Objectives:

  1. Summarize the research conducted by scientists and describe how their work contributed to the understanding of the chemical structure of DNA.
  2. Compare and contrast the chemical composition of DNA and RNA.
  3. List and describe the events that occur during each step of DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
  4. Define the term mutation and describe how mutations contribute to genetic diversity.
  5. Compare and contrast viral replication in bacteria, plants, and animals.
  6. Describe the mechanisms of gene regulation in bacteria and animal cells; including an explanation of how the lac operon works.
  7. Describe the role that oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes play in cancer.
  8. Define the term recombinant DNA and explain the processes used to create recombinant DNA.
  9. Describe the advantages of gene therapy.
  10. Discuss the controversy surrounding genetic engineering.

 

Concepts:
  1. Explain the structure of DNA. Include the components of nucleotides, base pairing, hydrogen bonds, and the double helix model.
  2. Distinguish between purines and pyrimidines.
  3. Distinguish between DNA and RNA structure.
  4. Describe the contributions of scientists in determining the structure of DNA, including Franklin and Watson and Crick.
  5. List and describe the steps of DNA replication.
  6. List and describe the steps of transcription and translation, and where each occurs.
  7. Explain the functions of messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA.
  8. Distinguish between codons and anticodons.
  9. Explain how the structure of DNA can change, including the various types of mutations.
  10. Predict the alternative base pairing for a given nucleotide sequence like ATTGCCTGAACCTCG.
  11. Describe the role of gene regulation in cell specialization.
  12. Define the term operon.
  13. Describe the role of the following in cancer: oncogene, proto-oncogene, growth factors, and tumor-suppressing genes.
  14. Explain the basic goals of genetic engineering.
  15. Define the terms genetically modified and transgenic organism.
  16. Describe the role of bacterial plasmids and viruses as vectors.
  17. Define the term restriction enzyme and explain how restriction enzymes are used in genetic engineering.
  18. Explain the value of sticky ends in gene splicing.
  19. Explain at least one example of biotechnology applications to human gene therapy.

 

Key Words:

  1. Watson and Crick
  2. DNA Structure
  3. Base-pairing
  4. DNA Replication
  5. The Genetic Code
  6. DNA Transcription and Translation
  7. DNA Mutations
  8. Viruses
  9. Viroids
  10. Prions
  11. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA
  12. Genetically Modified Organisms
  13. Restriction Enzyme
  14. Gene Therapy

 

BIOLOGY Lesson 10:

Objectives:

  1. Describe the contributions of Lamarck, Darwin, Lyell, and Wallace to the theory of evolution.
  2. Explain the observations and deductions that Darwin generated to account for natural selection.
  3. Define the term natural selection.
  4. Explain the theory behind how evolution occurs, including the terms natural selection, fitness, adaptations, traits, and behavior.
  5. Provide direct and indirect evidence for the theory of evolution (e.g., the fossil record, biogeography, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, and molecular biology).
  6. Explain the significance in studying homologous and vestigial structures.
  7. Distinguish between the following concepts: genetic drift versus gene flow; the founder effect versus bottleneck effect; directional, disruptive and stabilizing selection; and sexual versus natural selection.
  8. Analyze both the historical and current debate over the theory of evolution.
  9. Compare early methods of biological classification to modern classification techniques.

 

BIOLOGY Concepts:
  1. Define the term evolution.
  2. Summarize the contributions Aristotle, Buffon, Lamarck, Wallace, and Darwin made to the theory of evolution.
  3. Summarize the important observations made by Darwin during his voyage on the Beagle.
  4. Explain how the fossil record provides evidence of the theory of evolution.
  5. Explain how biogeography provides evidence of the theory of evolution.
  6. Define the terms homologous and vestigial structures and provide examples of each.
  7. Explain how comparative anatomy and comparative embryology provide evidence of the theory of evolution.
  8. Explain how molecular biology techniques provide evidence of the theory of evolution.
  9. Explain how natural selection creates new adaptations.
  10. List the two observations Darwin made that served as the foundation for his theory of natural selection.
  11. Provide an example that illustrates the evolution of an organism.
  12. Explain the smallest biological unit that can evolve.
  13. List the two sources of genetic variation in a population.
  14. Define the term genetic drift.
  15. Explain how the bottleneck effect negatively affects the diversity of a population.
  16. Explain the role of the founder effect in divergence and high frequency of inherited disorders.
  17. Define the term fitness as used in a biological application.
  18. Summarize the characteristics of populations resulting from directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection.

 

Key Words:

  1. Charles Darwin
  2. John-Baptiste de Lamarck
  3. Descent with modification
  4. Evolution
  5. The Fossil Record and Evolution
  6. Biogeography and Evolution
  7. Homologous Structures
  8. Vestigial Structures
  9. Natural Selection and Evolution
  10. Evolutionary Trees
  11. Modern Synthesis and Evolution
  12. Sources of Genetic Variation
  13. Gene Pool
  14. Genetic Drift
  15. Biological Fitness
  16. Directional, Disruptive and Stabilizing Selection
  17. Sexual Selection

 

BIOLOGY Lesson 11:

Objectives:

  1. Define the term macroevolution.
  2. Distinguish between speciation and nonbranching evolution.
  3. Define the biological species concept and describe the process of speciation.
  4. Describe prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers and provide examples of each.
  5. Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation.
  6. Distinguish between the evolutionary patterns of adaptive and punctuated evolution.
  7. Explain the concept of exaptation.
  8. List, in order, the four distinct ages in the history of Earth, including the types of organisms that lived during each period and characteristics which define each boundary.
  9. Distinguish between taxonomy and systematics and explain how the binomial system is used to identify species.
  10. List the levels of taxonomic groups in order.
  11. Distinguish between homologous and analogous structures.
  12. Compare early methods of biological classification to modern classification techniques.

 

BIOLOGY Concepts:
  1. Describe the processes involved in studying macroevolution.
  2. Distinguish between nonbranching and branching (speciation) evolution.
  3. Define the term species as it is used in a biological sense.
  4. List the different prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers and provide examples for each.
  5. Distinguish between and provide examples of allopatric and sympatric speciation.
  6. Compare the punctuated and graduated models of evolution.
  7. Define the term exaptation and provide examples of structures that were derived as an exaptation.
  8. List, in order, the four distinct ages in the history of life on Earth.
  9. Explain the role of radiometric dating and analyzing sedimentary rock layers in understanding the fossil history.
  10. Explain how the formation and breakup of Pangaea influenced evolution of life on Earth.
  11. Describe the role that mass extinctions have had in the formation of new species on Earth.
  12. Distinguish the terms taxonomy and systematics.
  13. Explain how the binomial system is used to identify species.
  14. List the levels of taxonomic groups in order from domain through species.
  15. Distinguish between homologous and analogous structures.
  16. Describe how cladistics are used to create classification systems.
  17. Distinguish between the two-kingdom, five-kingdom, and three-domain systems of classification.
  18. Explain why classification systems are revised.

 

BIOLOGY Key Words:
  1. Macroevolution
  2. Speciation
  3. Nonbranching evolution
  4. Biological Species
  5. Prezygotic and Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers
  6. Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
  7. Punctuated Eqiulibria
  8. Relative and Absolute Age of Fossils
  9. Radiometric Dating
  10. Plate Tectonics and Evolution
  11. Mass Extinctions and Evolution
  12. Taxonomy
  13. Binomial Nomenclature
  14. Phylogenetic Trees
  15. Convergent Evolution
  16. Cladistics
  17. Three-Domain System

 

BIOLOGY Lesson 12:

Objectives:

  1. Describe the major events that occurred in Earth’s history.
  2. Distinguish between spontaneous generation and biogenesis.
  3. Summarize the four stages in the most commonly accepted hypothesis on the origin of life.
  4. Describe the structure, function, and reproduction, of prokaryotes and the ecological and health significance of prokaryotes.
  5. Compare the two groups of prokaryotic cells.
  6. Summarize the two-stage hypothesis that describes the evolution of eukaryotes.
  7. List the four major categories of protists and provide example organisms and distinguishing characteristics for each category.

 

BIOLOGY Concepts:

  1. Place the major events of Earth’s history in sequential order, ending with the movement of life onto land.
  2. Distinguish between spontaneous generation and biogenesis.
  3. Summarize the four stages of the hypothesis for the origin of life on Earth.
  4. Describe the effects of mutations and natural selection on the first pre-cells of Earth.
  5. Describe the structure, function, and reproduction of prokaryotes.
  6. Describe the ways that prokaryotes affect humans.
  7. Compare the types of nutritional diversity used by prokaryotes.
  8. Compare the two groups of prokaryotic cells: bacteria and archaea.
  9. Compare the ways that bacteria harm and benefit humans and ecosystems.
  10. Summarize the endosymbiotic theory and the two processes involved in endosymbiosis.
  11. Compare and contrast the four protist groups by listing the defining characteristics of each group.
  12. Provide example organisms that are classified as protists and explain their impact on humans.

 

BIOLOGY Key Words:
  1. Episodes in the History of Life on Earth
  2. Cambrian Explosion
  3. Formation of Earth
  4. Biogenesis
  5. Spontaneous Generation and Louis Pasteur
  6. Origin of Life Hypotheses
  7. Bacterial Shapes
  8. Binary Fission
  9. Endospore
  10. Photoautotrophs
  11. Photoheterotrophs
  12. Chemoautotrophs
  13. Chemoheterotrophs
  14. Domain Bacteria
  15. Domain Archaea
  16. Pathogenic Prokaryotic Organisms
  17. Exotoxins and Endotoxins
  18. Prokaryotes and Bioremediation
  19. Protists
  20. Endosymbiotic Theory

 

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