Please read each question below carefully and answer with as much detail as you can.
- Explain/Describe the Neuron Doctrine and include the (I) names of three influential scientists and (II) their research which led to the establishment of the Neuron Doctrine.
- Give an explanation of two neuroanatomical techniques for viewing neurons, their proteins, receptors, etc.
- Describe the neuroanatomical basis of the following zones of neurotransmission: input, integration, conductance, and output. Be sure to name and describe the function of each as it relates to neurotransmission.
- Compare and contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomous nervous system. Be sure to include: region(s) of the spine where neurons originate, distinction between pre-and-post ganglionic cells, target innervation of these cells, and function at the target location.
- In detail, describe how the distribution and flow of ions contributes to the resting membrane potential of a neuron’s cell membrane. Be sure to define polarity, highlight the key ions and associated proteins that contribute to the resting membrane potential, and describe the physical forces that allow this process to occur.
- You discover a new type of brain cell and want to begin characterizing its electrical properties. Describe an experimental set up that would allow you to measure the firing of this new brain cell and use this framework to describe the properties of an action potential.
- What is saltatory conduction? How do the myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier, and Na+ ion channels contribute to this process?
- Explain how the electrical signal (Action Potential) is converted into a chemical signal? In other words, what happens when the Action Potential reaches the synaptic terminals? Be sure to describe the role of neurotransmitter synthesis, release, and recycling along with the role of auto receptors and transporter proteins.
- Support or Argue against the following statement : The function of a neurotransmitter depends solely on the inherent nature of the neurotransmitter (i.e, its molecular makeup).
- A mysterious exogenous agonist is accidently ingested by Bob. Rapidly, Bob begins to lose feeling in his toes, followed by his feet and his legs until eventually Bob is completely paralyzed. Describe (I) what type of neurons (i.e., somatic/autonomic) are being affected, (II) a neurotransmitter system that could be affected, and (III) the name and type of receptor that the exogenous agonist is binding to.
- In detail, explain the difference(s) between a ligand-gated ion channel and G-Protein coupled receptor. Moreover, explain how a G-Protein coupled receptor can exert its effect(s) on the post-synaptic neuron’s membrane potential.
- Choose 2 out of the 4 neurotransmitter systems in book and detail the system. Be sure to include the neural regions that include cells which synthesize the transmitter, the neural regions where the cells that contain the transmitter projects to or innervates, and the role of the transmitter at these target locations.
- In full detail, describe the many ways in which a drug/toxin can affect both the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron of a given synapse?