WTL Chocolate and Cycling

WTL Chocolate and Cycling Prompt


You have been hired by the U.S. bicycle team to help them train for the Tour de France. The headtrainer recently read an article, which claims that consumption of dark chocolate results in increasedoxygen consumption during cycling. The experimental setup consisted of a randomized crossoverdesign where the oxygen consumption of n = 9 male participants was measured in two trials after

participants consumed either dark chocolate or white chocolate. A crossover design is a repeatedmeasurements design such that each subject receives the two different treatments (dark chocolateversus white chocolate) during the different time periods, i.e., the patients cross over from onetreatment to another during the course of the experiment. The order of which treatment was received

in the first time period was randomized. Prior to receiving the first treatment, each participantunderwent baseline measurements. Data was gathered and analyzed as depicted in the table below.




The trainer knows you have some statistics background and wants your opinion about whether or notdark chocolate should be added to the athletes’ diets. Based on the results from the article, write amemo to the trainer explaining what the statistics show and make an argument for or against inclusionof dark chocolate in the athletes’ diet. Your memo should include a little discussion about how acrossover design affects the data analysis. Describe what the p-values indicate about the results, andthe meaning of statistical significance. Finally, comment about the provided confidence interval,including both an interpretation of the confidence interval itself and the meaning of the confidencelevel in context.


Items to keep in mind:


  • When we read your memo, we will play the role of the trainer with minimal statistical literacy

who is trying to understand the significance of these results.

  • If you have any references, be sure to cite them using MLA format.
  • Since you are explaining this to the head trainer, you should take care to carefully edit and

proofread your memo.


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