Variables Affecting Human Arterial Pressure and Pulse Rate

Lab Report Assignment

Variables Affecting Human Arterial Pressure and Pulse Rate


The purpose of this assignment is to familiarize you with the techniques of writing a lab report and to allow you to analyze and interpret data regarding variables that are known to affect human arterial pressure and pulse rate.


General Guidelines:


  1. Although you worked with a partner (or partners) while collecting the data, you must write your own, individual lab report in your own words.


  1. The lab report must be typed and double spaced. Number all pages except the title page.


  1. Be as concise as possible. Be specific in your wording.  The best lab reports are those in which every word is meaningful.  Strive for logic and precision. Avoid ambiguous statements.  Keep the writing impersonal – do notuse “I”, “we,” or “they”. Do not use the subject’s personal name. Instead, use “subject 1,” “subject 2,” and so on.


  1. Proofread your report before submitting it for grading. Mistakes in grammar and spelling will be factors in your final grade.  Have a neutral person review and critique you report before you submit it.  If you need help, see your lab instructor or the LAC.


  1. The report needs to be written in sufficient detail so that a person with the same background as you (e.g. one of your classmates) can read and understand the report.


  1. Do not say that the purpose was accomplished and then say nothing to explain beyond that. You must include data from the lab results to demonstrate that the purpose was accomplished (and how).


  1. Do not just list the data. Remember, you are supposed to discuss, analyze and interpret the data.


  1. Read all of the directions and refer to the discussion guidelines (page 5).


  1. The lab report should be submitted to Canvas)and will be checked for plagiarism. In order to receive a grade, the originality report score must be less than 25%.


  1. In text and full citations use APA format.





Academic honesty is required in collegiate and professional writing.  This means that students must use their own thoughts and materials in the writing of their papers.  Proper credit must be given to all information sources. The lab report must be submitted to (through Canvas)and a hard copy provided to your instructor(if needed – instructor’s discretion).  Pay attention to the following recommendations to avoid plagiarism.


Throughout the lab report make sure to use in-text citations when quoting or paraphrasing another author’s words, phrases, and ideas.  Merely rearranging another author’s writing still constitutes as plagiarism.


Be careful not to copy ideas, sentences, or phrases used by another student as thisconstitutes plagiarism.  It makes no difference which student copied or which student provided the information. Both students will receive a “0” for the assignment.


When explaining physiology, read appropriate textbooks and material, then write the concepts in your own words. Even when paraphrasing scientific ideas, you must include an in-text citation.


All in text and full citations must be in APA format.


Your originality score must be below 25% on the due date. Any report that has an originality score above 25% will receive a zero for the assignment.


The HCC Policies and Procedures regarding academic honesty will be strictly adhered

  1. to. HCC defines academic honesty as “[T]he use of one’s own thoughts and materials in the

writing of papers, taking of tests, and other classroom related activities. Any student

intentionally aiding another student in any infraction of the Academic Honesty Policy is

considered equally guilty.”  Refer to HCC’s 2017-2018 Student Handbook (page 61) or the

college website for a complete description of College policies and procedures





Title Page:     Page 1 is the title page. In bold print, write:


An Informative Title

Course Name and Section

Your Name

Name of Lab Partners

Date the Report is Submitted


Introduction   An introduction provides a concise statement, in paragraph form, of the    

(8 points)         purposes or aims of the experiment(s). This section is intended to introduce the

reader to the rest of the paper, so write it in the future tense.Although the

introduction varies with the style ofthe author and tests performed, it should only

containinformation that is relevant to the experiment. You can also describe any

background that you believe is critical to understanding the experiments, but do

not copy from the handout.


Do not list the terms and definitions as a dictionary reference, instead incorporate

them into the FLOW of background information. (For eg. cardiac output, stroke

volume, end systolic volume, end diastolic volume, resistance, venous return, blood

pressure, cardioacceleratory center, cardioinhibitory center, sympathetic nervous

system, parasympathetic nervous system, pulse rate etc)


You should include hypotheses for each experiment performed. Refer to the prelab

section of Lab 6. Hypothesis statements are about what you expect to happen during the

experiment. Give a reason for your hypothesis that is based on the regulation of blood

pressure and pulse. Make sure to use in text citations properly in the body of the paper

(3 pages maximum).


Results/DataThis section is used to present your results.  Present your data in the form of

(3points)          graphs.  Graphing your data is required. Do not report raw data in a table format. You will automatically lose 3 points from your results section not reporting your data in a graph format (see the grading rubric provided). Make sure that all units of measurement are included.  Also, makes sure that every graph and figure is appropriately titled and labeled. Please do not just copy the data sheet from the lab manual.


Discussion        Your data is analyzed and discussed in this section.Discussion is the most difficult and

(12 points)       importantsection. Tackle each data set, one at a time, as follows:  provide a brief                          summary, and follow with a detailed and specific explanation. Think about the hypothesis                  you madeand consider the physiological mechanisms that might explain your results.


It is important to interpret the data that you collected, not simply restate it.

Are your results in agreement with your hypotheses? Relate the results to existing

theory and knowledge. Select a pathway using the attached handout (page 5).

Choose at least one pathway for each experiment toexplain (analyze) why the

blood pressureand pulse rate went up or down.


Try to explain any discrepancies. What are the main points ofuncertainty in

interpreting your data?You may speculate, but acknowledge that you are doing

this.  Include any suggestions that you may havefor improving the

design of the experiment.  If you use information from othersources to support

yourdiscussion, you must cite the reference (4-8 pages maximum).


            **Be careful to include in-text citations, and use quotation marks for                                      any material directly quoted using APA format.


References:   Use APA format for citations within the paper and in your reference list.  Consult

(1 point)           if you are unfamiliar with this

format.  Another site to consult would be



Marieb, Elaine M.  Human Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition. The Benjamin/

Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. (2010), pp. 705-706.



All papers must be electronically submitted to through canvas and a hard copy (if needed by instructor) must be handed in to the instructor by the due date given. Late reports will lose 3 points a day, including weekend days.  You will not be allowed to submit a lab report if you do not attend lab week6.

































BIOL 204 Lab Report

Discussion Guidelines


Use one of the following pathways to explain the changes in blood pressure during your experiments:


MAP   =          CO      X         Resistance



                                                                                                            Length X Viscosity






                                                            CO      =          HR      X         SV 






                                                                                                            =          EDV – ESV

Sympathetic Nervous System

(release of epinephrine, norepinephrine)                                ­ SV:   ­ EDV (­ venous return)

¯ ESV (­ strength of

e.g.: emotions, stress, exercise, excitement                                                  ventricular contractions)


¯ SV:  ¯ EDV (¯ VR)

­ ESV (¯ strength of

                                                                                                                        ventricular contractions)


Other factors that influence MAP and pulse rate:


  1. Activation of Baroreceptors: located in the aorta and carotid                                  (Pressoreceptors)                             arteries; detect changes in                                                                                                      arterial pressure


  1. Activation of Chemoreceptors located in the aorta and carotid                                                                                              arteries; detect changes in pO2                                                                                              and pH (related to pCO2)


  1. Bainbridge (Right Atrial) Reflex: increased right atrial pressure                                                                                                 leads to an increase in heart rate


  1. Frank Starling Law increased stretch of cardiac                                                                                                   muscle fibers (within limits) causes                                                                                        an increase in contractile force


Note:   SNS Activation, Epinephrine, NE:  leads to ­ HR and force

PNS Activation, ACH:                      leads to ¯ HR





BIOL 204 Lab Report Grading Rubric

Item                                                                                                     Possible points  Your score        


Title page (Use format as noted in handout)                                            1          ________

Introduction (8 points total)

  • Purpose – Overall purpose for tests             1          ________


  • Background – define and explain appropriate terms and 4          ________               mechanisms regarding BP and pulse


  • Hypotheses- Predicted outcome for each testsee page 143-144 3          ________

 in the lab manual. Must include brief reasoning based

                 on the regulation of blood pressure and pulse



Results/Data (3 points total)

Postural changes                                                                                  1          ________

  • Data appears in graph format
  • Proper label, units, and title for figures


Exercise                                                                                               1          ________

  • Data appears in graph format
  • Proper label, units, and title for figures
  • Fitness index


Cognitive stressor                                                                                 1          ________

  • Data appears in graph format
  • Proper label, units, and title for figures


Discussion (12 points total)

Postural changes (recline, stand, 3 min)                                               4          ________

  • Summary of data (Explanation of results)
  • Results agree or disagree with hypothesis
    • How so, or why not?
  • Interpretation & analysis of results
    • Relate to background information
    • Any points of uncertainty?


Exercise (immediately after, recovery, relate to fitness index)                  4          ________

  • Summary of data (Explanation of results)
  • Results agree or disagree with hypothesis
    • How so, or why not?
  • Interpretation & analysis of results
    • Relate to background information
    • Any points of uncertainty?


Cognitive stressor (spell forward, spell backward)                                   4          ________

  • Summary of data (Explanation of results)
  • Results agree or disagree with hypothesis
    • How so, or why not?
  • Interpretation & analysis of results
    • Relate to background information
    • Any points of uncertainty?

Literature cited (in text citations reference page, APA format used)            1          ________


Total                                                                                                     25         ________

Last Updated on February 10, 2019