The Role of Intelligence in implementing Homeland Security Activities

The Role of Intelligence in implementing Homeland Security Activities

Homeland Security Information Paper

Purpose: To provide information on the importance of intelligence and information sharing in supporting Homeland Security activities.

Background: The country’s safety and prosperity depend on the quality of the intelligence we collect, the analysis that is produced, the sense to evaluate and share this information promptly, and the ability to counterintelligence threats through federal, state, local, tribal governments, and critical national missions. Information sharing is a crucial component of the Intelligence Community’s (IC) transformation to implement extensive support for the nation’s protection.

Also read: Homeland Security Initiatives

The nation’s strategy provides a common framework for preventing and disrupting terrorist attacks, protecting the American people, critical infrastructure, and key resources. The policy creates responding and recovering approaches to incidents that do occur while continuing toward the strengthening of the foundation to ensure long-term success. The criterion for homeland security includes three initiatives that help incorporate a basis of partnerships to create productive, strategic communication and support. They are:

  • Intelligence Community
  • Information Sharing Environment
  • Homeland Security Grant Program

Intelligence Community (IC).

This community is an alliance of official branch offices and associations that work independently and together to lead intelligence exercises essential for the conduct of foreign relations and the protection of the National Security of the United States.The IC stays concentrated on the missions of cyber intelligence, counter-terrorism, counter-proliferation, counterintelligence, and on the dangers postured by state and non-state performers.

  • The National Security Act of 1947 as amended by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 defines Intelligence as data assembled inside or outside the U.S. that includes threats to the U.S., its citizens, property, or interests; advancement, expansion, or utilization of weapons of mass devastation; and some other issue bearing on the U.S. national or homeland security.
  • Executive Order 1233 mandates agencies inside the IC to utilize the least intrusive gathering methods plausible within the United States or coordinated against the United States people abroad. The agencies within the intelligence community include:
    • The Director of National Intelligence– Has leading authority to ensure maximum accessibility of and access to intelligence information with the IC, consistent with national security necessities. Other duties include:
      • Establish security standards, and common information, protocols and interfaces
      • Ensure development of information technology systems
      • Develop an enterprise architecture for the IC and ensure elements of IC complies with structure
    • Central Intelligence Agency– Responsible for providing national security intelligence to policymakers.
    • Department of Energy– Responsible for the intelligence and counterintelligence activities throughout the DOE complex.
    • Department of Homeland Security Responsible for using information and intelligence from multiple sources to identify future threats.
    • Drug Enforcement Administration- Responsible for facilitating full and appropriate intelligence coordination and information sharing with other members of the IC.
    • National Geospatial Intelligence Agency- Provides geospatial intelligence.
    • Intelligence elements of four DOD services( Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Navy)
    • National Security Agency- Coordinates, directs, and performs activities to protect U.S. intelligence.
    • Department of Treasury- Responsible for the receipt, analysis, and collation of foreign intelligence and foreign counterintelligence.
    • Defense Intelligence Agency- Responsible for foreign military intelligence.
    • Coast Guard- Responsible for collection and reporting intelligence that supports national objectives.
    • Department of State- Provides object analysis of global developments, and insights from all-source intelligence.
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation- Drives collaboration to achieve the full integration of intelligence and operations amongst law enforcement.
    • National Reconnaissance Office- Plays primary role in achieving information superiority for the U.S..
  • The IC establishes the utilization of state and local personnel:
    • State governors
    • Mayors
    • Other locally elected officials
    • State and local law enforcement personnel
    • Public health and medical professionals
    • Regional, state, and local emergency management agency personnel
    • Employees of private-sector entities that affect critical infrastructure, cyber, economic, or public health security


**The IC must accomplish – Strategic Intelligence, Anticipatory Intelligence, and Current Operations**


Information Sharing Environment (ISE).

Created by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the ISE comprises of the general population, ventures, frameworks, and organizations that empower capable data sharing over the National Security Enterprise. It is the approach that facilitates the sharing of terrorism and homeland security information.

  • Section 212 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 as amended by the Implementing Recommendations of /11 Commission Act of 2007 defines “Information sharing and analysis” organization asAny formal or informal entity or collaboration created or operated by public or private sector organizations, for purposes of
    • Gathering and analyzing critical infrastructure information
    • Communicating or disclosing critical infrastructure information
    • Voluntarily disseminating critical infrastructure information to its members, federal, state, local, and tribal entities, and the private sector.
  • Executive Order 13356 asserts all department heads to implement policies and give the highest priority to the detection, prevention, disruption, and mitigation of terrorist activities, the interchanging of terrorism information amongst agencies, and the protection of such information.
  • The strategic goals of information sharing helps
    • Institute Uniform Information Sharing Policy
    • Advance Universal Information Discovery and Retrieval Goal
    • Establish a Common Trust Environment Goal
    • Enhance Collaboration Across Community
    • These goals create deeper knowledge and improved security
      • Challenges Faced
        • Managing Risk-appropriately (dynamic tension)
        • Creating a uniform trust model across the IC


Homeland Security Grants.

The Homeland Security Grant Program plays a vital part in the usage of the National Preparedness System. It is used to support the build, sustainment, and deliver of core capabilities.

  • Grant programs available
    • State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)
    • Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI)
    • Operation Stonegarden (OPSG)

**these grant programs subsidize a scope of preparation practices, including arranging, construction, equipment purchase, activities, and policy and management over all core abilities and mission territories.**

  • Section 521 states the importance of the “Interagency Threat Assessment.” The assessment data allows:
    • The Federal government and other partners to better target resources
    • Forms the basis for Fusion Center related to the Homeland Security Grant Program


  • The unique conditions of today’s society demonstrate the critical role fusion centers have in supporting the receipt, assembling, and distribution of risk related data between different government offices and state, local, tribal, and regional accomplices.


Note: Federal, state and local governments, intelligence, law enforcement, emergency preparation, and response agencies must act in partnership to maximize the benefits of erudition gathering and analysis to deter and respond to terrorist attacks. Under procedures prescribed by the President, all appropriate agencies including IC, state, and local personnel, shall share homeland security information through information sharing systems. Effective strategic communications are essential to sustaining global legitimacy and establishing the nation’s policy aims. Aligning operations with information is a shared accountability that must be furthered by a production of communication.


For Additional homeland security information

107th Congress. (2001). Uniting and strengthening America by providing appropriate tools required to intercept and obstruct terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) act of 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from

107th Congress. (2001). Homeland security act of 2002. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from

108th Congress. (2004). Intelligence reform and terrorism prevention act of 2004. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from

110th Congress. (2007). Implementing recommendations of the 9/11 commission act of 2007. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from

110th Congress. (2007). Implementing recommendations of the 9/11 commission act of 2007. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from

Executive Order 12333—United States Intelligence Activities, December 4, 1981. Retrieved from

Executive Order 13356—Strengthening the Sharing of Terrorism Information To Protect Americans,August 27, 2004. Retrieved from

FEMA, FY 2017 Homeland Security Grant Program, June 2, 2014. Retrieved from

Homeland Security Council (U.S.), & United States. (2007). National strategy for homeland security. Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President.

National Security Strategy (2010). Retrieved from

United States. (2000). The national intelligence strategy of the United States of America. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Director of National Intelligence.

United States intelligence community information sharing strategy (2008). Retrieved from


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