Introduction 2 Pages and Literature Review 3 pages. This need to follow the guideline of this instruction and due date on time. This assignments will be turn in to turnitin.com to check for plagiarism. All information need to be cited correctly by using Academic Journal and accredited sources. This is a research paper! I need all the requirement to be done correctly. This paper will be require to revised and make changes.
Topic: The effect of education on the likelihood of Using Excessive Force.
- Hypothesis: Officers who are more educated are less likely to use excessive force during arrest.
- Independent Variable: Officers’ education level
- Dependent Variable: likelihood of use excessive force
Criminal Justice Research Methods
- Lead-in to the topic that is interesting.
- State the hypothesis.
- State why the results may be important.
- State why you expect to get a particular result based on theory, not evidence/observations.
- State why you might be wrong and get the opposite result. Again, based on theory, not evidence/observations.
- State why the two variables may not be related very strongly at all again based on theory, not evidence/observations.
- State what previous researchers found – their results – (evidence/observations) that support the particular result you expect to get (see 1).
- State what previous researchers found – their results – (evidence/observations) that support the particular result you do not expect to get (see 2).
- State what previous researchers found- their results – (evidence/observations) that supports that the two variables many not be related very strongly (see 3).
Trap for the unwary: When one does a good literature review, it often reshapes your topic somewhat. Don’t be afraid to modify the topic in view of what you find. It happens more often than not.
Example: Often one finds that the topic has been thoroughly researched and the answer is known. One does not have to abandon the topic totally in most cases if it can be justified.
Justifications for conducting the study:
- Previous research was on a different population. You may want to replicate it on a new population.
- Previous work was done on the same population, but a long time ago. Since culture and people change over time, it may be valuable to see if the relationship still holds today.
- The research has never been replicated – and needs to be.
- If all of these conditions have been met, one may add a second variable (control variable) and see how that changes the results.
Literature Review (APA)
Quickest method-college textbook, find chapter or section that deals with the topic. It will tell how the variables are related, what research has been done in the past on them, any disputes about their relationship. Look up the references in the index that are peer review articles.
Read the introduction/literature review and bibliography of each article. From this information, one decides which other research articles may add to your topic and whether to get a copy or not.
What to look for when reviewing an article:
- The hypothesis must be related somehow to your topic – if not move on. At least one of the variables must be your variable (specially your dependent variable).
- Look at the sample which was tested. You preferably want the sample to have been from the same population in which you are interested. If neither the sample nor either variable in the hypothesis are what you want, the article is not what you need.
- Findings. Either the variables are or are not related.
- Look at how they measured their variables.
- Assess how good their measurement was on each variable. To be good, the measurement must accurately measure the values of the underlying variables.
- This measurement of their variables is called the operational definition of the variables, i.e., it is a SET OF PROCEDURES WHICH DETERMINES THE VALUE ANY VARIABLE WILL TAKE ON A UNTI OF ANLAYSIS.
- If you like their measurement, you may choose to use their operational definition in your work too. If you do not like it, you need to create a better one.
- The author often suggests how others might create a better operational definition in their section entitled “Discussion/Suggestions and Limitations”.
- Look at the design and determine what type it is.
- Field Research
- Content Analysis
Know the weaknesses of each type of design.
- Look over the discussion/suggestions and limitations section. If may contain ideas for better operational definitions, better designs, or better samples.
- Look at the literature again and make sure you did not miss any other article that may be important.
Criminal Justice Research Methods Assignment #2
- What kind of research design(s) are you proposing to collect data in your study (for example: classical experiment study, survey, field research, or unobtrusive research)? As discussed in class, you can choose a combination of different designs.
- How are you going to collect your data by using this research design? I want all the detail information and a step-by-step research procedure. You need to discuss the research procedures separately if you are using different research designs for different populations.
Remember to discuss the following issues if applicable:
- University IRB approval
- Other approvals/permissions to conduct your research: for example, school districts, principals, teachers, parents, participants, and agencies such as: probation, CDCR, police departments, courts…
- Rights of participants
- Length of study (how long does it take to complete the study, how long does it take to complete the survey…)
- Incentives: money, extra credit, gift certificate, candies…
- Remember to discuss these procedures separately if you have more than one population
- What are your justifications? Why (provide reasons here) do you want to collect your data using this particular research design? Pros of survey, experimental study, field research, or content analysis
- Please remember to put your hypothesis on the top of the assignment.
Criminal Justice Research Methods Assignment #3
- Identify your population. What is your population size (How big is your population)? What is
your study population (if it is different from your population)? What is your sampling frame? And, how many samples do you need?
- Specify the type of sampling technique that you will propose to select these samples, for example,
simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling or cluster sampling.
- Provide me all the detail about your sampling procedure (if you have more than one
population and you are using different sampling techniques for these populations, you need to
discuss your sampling technique for each of the population you that you draw your samples from).
- What are your justifications? Why do you propose this particular type of sampling? Pros of the
sampling technique that you have chosen.
Remember to put (1) the hypothesis and (2) research methods (for example, in class survey, mail survey, experimental design, existing data analysis .…) from the 2nd assignment, on the top of your assignment.
Criminal Justice Research Methods Assignment #4
- What is your independent variable and what is your dependent variable?
- Define your independent and dependent variables (general definition: what are the definitions of your variables?).
- How are you going to measure your independent variable and dependent variable?
- nominal definition: Indicators, dimensions of your variables.
- operational definition: You need to show me the questions as they appear in the questionnaire. Or, you need to show me the “questions” to yourself if you are working on content analysis or observational study (field research).
- levels of measurement: You need to identify level of measurement for each of your operational definition/question.
Remember to put your hypothesis and your research design on the top of your assignment.
Criminal Justice Research Methods
- Cover Page (follow the format of your handout)
- Table of Content (remember to number your pages)
- why is your study important (ie. what if your hypothesis is right and what if your hypothesis is wrong)
- Literature Review
- theory for your hypothesis
- theory against your hypothesis
- theory states there is no relationship between your independent variable and
- evidence/statistics/empirical studies for theory 1
- evidence/statistics/empirical studies for theory 2
- evidence/statistics/empirical studies for theory 3
- Research Design
- proposed research design (ie. survey, field research, experimental study, or content analysis)
- research design procedure
- proposed sampling technique
- what is your population
- sampling procedure
- for your independent variable
- for your dependent variable
- levels of measurement for each operational definition
- Time Table and Budgets
- Conclusion and Discussion
- identify the possible problems with your study (ie. sample size, the scope of your study, your population, research methods, measurement…)
- how would you fix these problems?
- suggestions to future researchers? (ie. related study topic in the future)
- Reference List (APA Style)
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