Technology Literature Review

Structure
The report should contain four main sections :
1.
Section 1 : Business background
Explain the background of the selected business clearly and comprehensively,
investigating who they are, what services they provide, what is their market or
target, what are they competitive advantages and how they provide those services.
You may also discuss, using theory, why the services have likely emerged successfully
and accepted by the market.
2.
Section 2 : Digital disruption analysis (Impact of the emerging technology)
Provide your deep analysis of the impacts of the emerging technology which disrupts
the current industries by applying the theory comprehensively. You may also predict
the potential digital disruption in future. Explain how the digital disruption
innovation can engage with existing market or even create new market and how
they market their value to the market. Define how best to respond to the challenges
and opportunities that disruption offers.
3
. Section 3 : Implication
Discuss the legal, social, ethical, cultural, and security implications that the digital
disruption has caused or will cause in the future.
4.
Section 4 : References
You will need to use between 10 and 15 references to support your arguments.
Make sure you cite your work with key references that will support all arguments
you make. Harvard Referencing should be the referencing style used.
Ideas
Forget Uber, what are the implications for the taxi industry with self-driving cars?
Can this technology replace personal driver?
How could the new technology convince people to use the technology in terms of safety?
What happens to petrol and oil when we have electric cars?
How to prepare the staff in terms of transition between outmoded industries of coal and oil
to more sustainable endeavours?
Is it safe not to have a human behind the wheel?

Introduction Connected and Automated Vehicle
Simulation to Enhance Vehicle Message Delivery
This literature review discusses, identifies and analyses key technologies that
have emerged and shaped the business world. More specifically the impact of
innovation and disruption.
Tesla Motors, now Tesla Inc. Is an American company based in California (
Palo Alto) that deals with energy storage, solar panel manufacturer and most
of all, it’s an independent auto-making company engaging in mainly in electric
vehicles. The company was founded in early 2003. Its CEO is Elon Musk says
the company aims at producing electric cars that will be at affordable prices to
the average consumers (Karamitsios, 2013, 1). The company has also
invested mainly in the lithium-ion battery that is better than other cells thus
giving it an upper hand against rivals (Nykvist & Nilsson, 2015, 331).
Therefore, their cars can go for longer distances without being recharged.
That is more than 200 miles, for instance, the Tesla Model S which ranges at
250 miles when driving at 65mph. However, the 2017 Tesla Model S has a
battery pack that can last up to 341 miles which is higher than any other
manufactured electric car.
Tesla’s Driverless Electric Cars
The Tesla D model is an upgrade of the models S Tesla with two added
significant features the first being improved battery efficiency and being an allwheel drive. The second and most significant upgrade is the autopilot features
with is a huge step forward in the path of realising driverless vehicles. The
vehicle boasts a forward radar that can see through a thick fog; it also has
cameras with image recognition that can distinguish between pedestrians’
cars alongside reading road signs which scan and process the environment.
Improvement and innovation in the car engines technology is not the change
attracting attention in the car manufacturing industry.
Over the decade, automobile manufacturers are highly focusing on driverless
vehicles (Burns, 2013, 181). These cars are capable of scanning movement
of objects interpreting traffic lights and also back up the radar. The cars are
also equipped with a 360-degree long range ultrasonic sonar that creates a
protective barrier around the vehicle to keep it safe as it maneuvers. The
Tesla D model also has a GPS and real-time data of the traffic flow (Barber &
Best, 2017, 43). (Davies, 2017)
Impacts of Tesla’s Driverless Electric Cars
As per Morgan Stanley (Anon, 2017, 1), about 40,000 people die annually in
the U.S as a result of road accidents. Most of these accidents are as a result
of careless or rather errors from the drivers. Driverless vehicles would
drastically reduce this number hence saving lives. The second impact would
be saving fuel. Autonomous vehicles can maximize the car’s efficiency and
thus save fuel in our case the Tesla D model being electric help save fuel with
oil reserves estimated to last for 53 years (Murphy & Hall, 2010, 115). The
driverless car will enhance consumer productivity and boost the economy in
that the passenger instead of driving can keep him/herself busy working
online (Lipson & Kurman, 2016, 128-130). Just like drones, driverless vehicles
can also be used in the military and help reduce casualties.

However, driverless cars are yet to be put publicly in roads as much more
technological integration regarding the vehicle as well as the infrastructure.
Morgan Stanley predicts that 100% adaptation of driverless cars will be no
sooner than 2024 (Anon, 2017, 3).
The challenge however, will be, who will be liable in case of an accident and
who to determines premiums. Tesla is forcing insurance agencies to seriously
consider how policies will change as cars become safer due to advents in
self-driving technology. (Muoio, 2017). Insurance companies will also have to
keep up with the developments to meet the requirements for covering electric
automobiles.
Competition
Whilst Tesla has been around for approximately 15 years it is going up
against established brands that are over 100 years old.
European countries like France & Britain recently announced that they intend
to completely end the sale of gas & diesel cars by 2040 as part of their efforts
to reducing pollution and carbon emissions. In France, the promise to end
sales of traditional cars was made as part of a renewed commitment to the
Paris accord. In Britain, which is also committed to the Paris treaty, the
measures have particular political significance because of rising concern over
the level of air pollution, particularly in large cities like London. (Castle, 2017)
Recently the German government intervened to put 1 million electric cars on
the road by 2020, making battery research a priority as it tries to position the
country as a market leader. (MOULSON and WRITER, 2017).
The Japanese are also planning to push further into the manufacturing of
electric vehicles. As governments around the world begin to get even tougher
on traditional combustion engines, Japan’s car manufacturers are well
positioned to put their world-leading technologies to the test. (Ryall, 2017). All
the manufactures either have a model that they recently released or is
planning on releasing within the next couple of years.
Privacy Challenges
Since its birth the motor vehicle whilst making steady progress up to 2003
really hadn’t changed much. Now similarly to the businesses of Google, Apple
& Facebook who have starting seeing the value of the data they collect Tesla
is also amassing large amounts of data. Tesla’s autopilot can collect almost
2GB of data within a month. With almost 60.000 Teslas equipped with that
hardware on the road this would mean a maximal data volume of over 100
terabytes has been uploaded to Tesla. (Herger, 2017).
Many people have raised concerns with all the data Tesla is collecting. Those
who value privacy may take issue with the current privacy policy of Tesla.
Tesla’s privacy policy states that the company has the right to “transfer and
disclose information, including personal and non-personally identifiable
information… to protect the rights, property, safety, or security of the Services,
Tesla, third parties, visitors to our Services, or the public as determined by us
in our sole discretion.” This is an area that needs to be investigated.
(Edelstein, 2017)

References
Anon, (2017). Tesla is World’s First Digital Car. [online] Available at:
[Accessed 4 Nov. 2017].
Barber, D. and Best, A., 2017, July. Connected and Automated Vehicle
Simulation to Enhance Vehicle Message Delivery. In International Conference
on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (pp. 38-46). Springer, Cham.
Davies, A. (2017). Tesla’s Model D beats Model S in power and efficiency.
[online] Wired.co.uk. Available at:
[Accessed 4 Nov. 2017].
Burns, L.D., 2013. Sustainable mobility: a vision of our transport future.
Nature, 497(7448), pp.181-182.
Karamitsios, A., 2013. Open innovation in EVs: A case study of Tesla Motors.
Lipson, H. and Kurman, M., 2016. Driverless: intelligent cars and the road
ahead. (pp.127-144). Mit Press.
Murphy, D.J. and Hall, C.A., 2010. Year in review—EROI or energy return on
(energy) invested. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1185(1),
pp.102-118.
Nykvist, B. and Nilsson, M., 2015. Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for
electric vehicles. Nature Climate Change, 5(4), pp.329-332.
Muoio, D. (2017). Tesla is pushing the insurance industry to prepare for
massive disruption. [online] Business Insider Australia. Available at:
[Accessed 5 Nov. 2017].
Castle, S. (2017). Britain to Ban New Diesel and Gas Cars by 2040. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at:
[Accessed 5 Nov. 2017].
MOULSON, G. and WRITER, A. (2017). German government: 1 million
electric cars by 2020. [online] ABC News. Available at:

2020/story?id=8364933
[Accessed 4 Nov. 2017].
Ryall, J. (2017). Japanese car firms to accelerate electric vehicle push.
[online] DW.COM. Available at:
http://www.dw.com/en/japanese-car-firms-toaccelerate-electric-vehicle-push/a-40505501 [Accessed 5 Nov. 2017].
Herger, M. (2017). Tesla Starts Massive Data Collection Activity on Customer
Cars via Autopilot Hardware Kit 2. [online] The Last Driver License Holder…
Available at:

2/
[Accessed 5 Nov. 2017].
Edelstein, S. (2017). Tesla Uses Autopilot Data to Defend Itself, But What
About Driver Privacy?. [online] The Drive. Available at:

http://www.thedrive.com/tech/8895/tesla-uses-autopilot-data-to-defend-itselfbut-what-about-driver-privacy [Accessed 5 Nov. 2017].

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