Nervous System and The Senses

This worksheet represents the third of the worksheets covering five of the major systems of the human body. You will be
able to check your answers against the answer key posted on blackboard, the Sunday before the final quiz week. You
should make any corrections so that you can use this worksheet as a partial study guide for the final lab exam.
1. The _______________ nervous system is comprised of the brain and the spinal cord, while the
_______________________ nervous system includes all of the nerves carrying signals to and from the
brain and spinal cord.
2. Commands to the skeletal muscle are under the control of the ________________ nervous system, while
smooth muscle, glands and other viscera are under the control of the ___________________ nervous
system.
3. The branch of the autonomic nervous system, which deals with speeding up or stimulating body activities
during times of stress or excitement, while slowing down normal “housekeeping” functions is termed the
_________________________ nervous system. After the stress or threat goes away, what branch of the
autonomic nervous system will take over control? ________________________________________
4. The signal traveling within the nerve cell is electrical / chemical (Choose one). The area between nerve
cells where the nerve impulse moves from one cell to another is a __________________.
The signal at this connection point is electrical / chemical. The portion of the nerve cell, which receives
the signal from the previous cell, is the___________________, while the portion of the nerve cell, which
sends the signal out, is the __________________.
After you answer questions 5-11 below, locate the each part of the brain covered in those
questions and label them on the diagrams of the brain on the next page.
5. The brain stem has three structures. List them in order from the brain and ending with the spinal cord.
__________________________________________________________________________________
6. The structure of the brain that is associated with maintaining your equilibrium and coordination of
body movements is the ______________________________________.
7. Respiration and heartbeat control centers are located in the ___________________ of the brain.
8. What is the function of the pons? ____________________________________________________
9. Homeostasis of the body (including body temperature, water balance and appetite) is under the control of
the ___________________________________.
10. The “Gatekeeper” for transmission of impulses from other parts of the nervous system to the cerebrum is
the ___________________________.
11. The portion of the brain, which is responsible for higher order functions, such as voluntary muscle
movement, understanding speech, thinking and communicating is the _______________________.
This part of the brain divides into two parts known as the _____________ and ______________
hemispheres. They connect by a structure known as the __________________________________.
This structure is only visible once you bisect the two hemispheres and functions as a pathway for signals
between them.2
12. The cerebrum is highly convoluted (folded). Relate structure to function and explain why it makes sense
that the cerebrum developed in such a way.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. The structural & functional unit of the nervous system is the ______________________.
There are three types of these cells, based primarily on what they do. The first of these sends nerve
impulses from a receptor (such as those located in the skin) to the spinal cord are known as
_______________________________. The second sends nerve impulses from the spinal cord to an
effector, (such as a muscle or gland) known as _______________________________.
The third type lies completely within the spinal cord and sends nerve impulses from the first to the second
type of nerve cell. This type of nerve cell is known as an ________________________________.
14. Draw a cross-section of the spinal cord and indicate the location of the following:
Gray matter, white matter, ventral root, dorsal root ganglion, central canal
15. Suppose you are walking along a beach, (don’t we wish!) and you step on a piece of broken shell. You
immediately pull your foot away without even thinking. This type of response is termed a
___________________.
16. In your drawing of the spinal cord in question #14, diagram the response you just had on the beach.
Include the following and be sure to label them.
Stimulus, sensory receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector, response
Using the drawing of the eye, which you completed in lab, answer questions 17 to 23. Once you finish
the questions, label the parts of the eye found in the questions on the diagram of the eye below question
23.
17. In the movies, you often hear a commander in the army tell his soldiers not to shoot “until you see the
whites of the enemy’s eyes”. The commander was referring to the outer layer of the eye known as
the _______________.3
18. The sclera forms a transparent rounded bulge at the front of the eye known as the _______________.
19. The highly vascularized middle eye layer, is known as the _____________________.
20. A sheet of tissue, known as the _______________ contains pigment, which is responsible for the color of
the eye. The tissue contracts pulling back and enlarging the opening in its center. When the tissue relaxes,
the opening in the center of the tissue becomes smaller. This opening in the center of the tissue known as
the _______________________.
21. The _______ is located at the point where the sensory fibers from the _________ exit the eye in a structure
called the _________.
A) Optic nerve B) blind spot C) retina D) ciliary body E) iris F) sclera
22. Within the eye are two types of fluid. One of these is located between the cornea and the lens of the eye
and has the consistency of water. This fluid is known as _____________________________________.
The second fluid is very gelatinous in consistency and is found behind the lens and fills the majority of
the eye. This fluid is termed the ____________________________________.
23. If you need glasses to read or see clearly at a distance, what part of the eye is no longer elastic enough to
do its job correctly? __________________________. How does the structure known as the ciliary body
function to aid the eye during the phenomenon of accommodation? _______________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
24. What type of cells are rods and cones? ____________________
How do they differ in their function? _______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
In what tissue would you find the rods and cones? _____________________
Acute vision, such as reading, is possible due to a dense concentration of these cells in one area. This
region of concentrated rods and cones is called the ________________________________________.
25. The tongue and nasal passages contain specialized neurons known as ___________________________.
26. The taste buds are located on the ____________________of the tongue and function to recognize the four
basic tastes of ______________________, ________________________, ______________________ and
____________________________.
27. In order to recognize odors, a ______________________ must bind to the odor molecule in order to trigger
the neuron to send a signal to the brain.
28. Signals for smell will enter the brain by first passing through the ___________________________.

 

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