Management Theory and Practice

 

Worth 30% of module mark

Submission date for final paper:

 

 

Assignment Brief

 

One of the reasons for this assignment is to understand the principles of research. The assignment requires students to produce a paper with a maximum of 15 pages review of an area of Managementresearch, design their own research and consider the ethical and practical issues that may occur when conducting applied research.

 

You are required to review up to date research in ONE of topic area of Management.

 

The format, which follows, is typical of most journals , and subscribes to APA style.You will need to bring all your written communication skills to this project. You will be very careful with proper citation. The whole of this paper is to be in your words. Ideas and information used from other authors are to be cited.

 

In your assignment it is important to use the following sections:

 

  1. A title page;  an abstract; an introduction to the paper;
  2. The review of literature;What recent research has occurred in this area?
  3. A Methods section; What research could you conduct to “fill any gaps”?
  4. What ethical and professional/practical issues may be raised by your research? How might they be addressed?

 

In order to assist in your preparation for this assignment, please read the following information.

 

 

 

Assignment Structure

 

Section One: A title page;  an abstract; an introduction to the paper;

 

Title Page and Credits

Title. The title should summarize the main idea ofthe paper and include the main topic

and actual theoretical issue investigated. Good titles are short (< 20 words) and would serve as a

type of index of the main issues covered. The title should be self-explanatory. Type the title centered, in upper and lower cases, double-spaced. For example:

 

The Effects of Peer vs Expert Models on Learning a Novel Throwing Skill

 

Author’s Name and Affiliation.The author’s name and affiliation appears on the title

page.

 

Running head. Each page of your paper has a brief “title” (running head) printed in

the upper right hand corner of the paper. Itshould be a maximum of 50 characters, and be

followed by the specific page number for that page. A notation as to the specific Running head

should be located in all caps. For example, on your title page you would show:

 

Running head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL GUIDELINES: APA STYLE

 

Abstract

(This is your section header; centered on the page)

The Abstract for the paper isa brief (150-200 words) comprehensive summary of

the research proposal. The word “Abstract” is centered as the first line of type on this page. Type

the abstract as a single paragraph in block format (i.e., without paragraph indentation). You may

also want to list keywords fromyour paper in your abstract. To do this, center the text and type

Keywords:(italicized) and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers

find your work in databases.

 

Introduction

The introduction is the opening of the paper, and because of its unique location, does not

require a heading or label. It provides an introduction and statement of the problem that will be

studied (or reviewed). It setsthe stage for the entire paper by establishing the nature of the

question. It should demonstrate why this question was important to you by providing brief

background information.

Firstaddress theproblem! State the overall area of concern (populations-at-risk for

injustice or discrimination; need for more functional affiliations for individuals and groups;

unethical policies/practices; lack of knowledge in the field, etc.). Arouse thereader’s interest; tell

the reader what to expect in the rest of your paper. Provide brief statistics to indicate the

incidence of the problem.

Next, discuss how this problem area affects individuals, communities, and society as a whole (what are issues of physical and economic health).

The potential utility of your study can be:

1) an addition to current knowledge of a problem or a vulnerable population;

2) to put theory to an empirical test;

3) to better understand the relationship between variables (e.g., adherence and technology);

or 4) to determine the effectiveness of a treatment method, technology, or program.

 

 

 

Summary

In the closing two – three paragraph of theintroduction, establish the need for future

study related to this topic. That is, why did you decide to review this topic? What did your

review of literature tell you (summary)? Whatdo we need to study next to advance knowledge

in this area?

 

It is expected that this section will take roughly 15% of your assignment

 

Section Two: What recent research has occurred? (the literature review)

The review of literature should generally begin on a new page. Discuss the literature

related to your proposed study.

 

Thissection is designed to inform readers about past studies that

have already been conducted, and provides perspectives on your area of interest. The review

should include a brief discussion ofany “classical studies” in thisarea, if appropriate, but the

major portion of the content should focus on the pastdecade of research. It should close with a

logical summary of past research and transition toa statement about what should be studied next.

 

As you begin, you need to share your theory basewith the readers so they understand how what you are presenting is influenced by that theory base. As you read articles on your topic look for what other authors have to say about a theoretical framework to understand the problem and pointing a direction for solutions. It is a good idea to organize your Review of Literature by topical clusters. In general, it is better to use a topical organization rather than merely reporting studies in chronological order. All research cited must relate specifically to your topic (the question being studied) and should be properly referenced, using APA style.

 

You will find it easiest to write the entire paper in the past tense, since everything you eventually report has already happened. You should use clear and short sentences that generally avoid the use of personal pronouns (e.g., “I”).

 

Current research articles may serve as an excellent source to guide you to past research in the specific area. In addition, citation indices, reference books, and other searches will also

help. After you present what is already known, make your case for yourresearch either

answering a new question, getting a new answer to an old question, answering a question

about a new population, etc.

 

After you have made your case that your research is going to give new information, you will summarize the major points.

 

Remember that the Introduction discusses the problem. The review of literature should concentrate on

solutions(those that exist, those that are still required).

 

Finally, you will formulate (in the last sentence) your research question or your hypothesis.

When you cite studies in your review of literature, be sure to properly format the citations

based on APA style.

 

  • Why is this area of current importance? (include recent references)
  • What have other researchers done in this area recently?
  • What questions remain unanswered?
  • What theories exist in this area?

 

Comment critically on the above questions – are there any methodological issues? Have they overstated their findings? Could their research have been conducted differently? Etc.

 

It is expected that this section will take roughly 50% of your assignment

 

N.B.  remember to cite all references that you use in this section

 

 

Section Three: What research could you conduct to “fill any gaps”? (your research questions and ideas)

 

This section will directly follow section two and it should be clear to the reader how you have arrived at this position.

 

Do not introduce the topic again. Introduce the general methodology most authors have

taken on this topic and the one you will be using and why (tie to the literature review). The

purpose is a statement of what you intendto study not what you intend to find.

 

In this section you will provide a brief overview of the research that you intend to conduct:

  • What is the research?
  • How will you conduct it? Are you doing qualitative or quantitative research; is it exploratory, descriptive or explanatory? Explain why you are using this type of study and whatyou plan to explore, describe, or explain (again tie it to the literature review).

Do you plan to use interventions, interviews, behavior observation, questionnaires,etc.?

  • Who will your participants be?Give as much information about the population that has been gathered from your review of the literature: age range, gender mix, education, etc.
  • What questions will it answer? Tie this to final part section of two
  • What do you want to study?
  • Hypothesis:
    • A brief statement that describes the purpose of a potential study
    • Presents predictions – what do you think the findings of the study will be?
    • 1 or 2 sentences
    • REALITY CHECK – can you do the research?

 

It is expected that this section will take roughly 20% of your assignment

 

 

 

 

Section four: What ethical and professional/practical issues may be raised by your research? How might they be addressed?

 

With any research, ethical and professional/practical issues will play a part.  What issues could occur in your research?

 

Ethical issues: follow the BPS Code of Conduct:

  • Respect
  • Competence
  • Responsibility
  • Integrity

 

 

 

Professional/practical issues:

  • Gaining access to participants
  • Real world versus artificial situations
  • Timings, how long will the project need to run for to get the required results?

 

Consider how you could overcome any ethical and professional/practical issues.

 

Ethical Consideration (Human Participants Protections)

What safeguards are in place in your study to protect human participants? Consider both

emotional and / or physical harm. Consider who the participants are and if children or some other vulnerable population. What is your basic ethical approach? What are the power differentialsbetween you and your participants, and how will you protect themfrom any possible abuses? What steps are you taking to insure informed consent?

 

Bias

We all have biases; the most insidious are those of which we are unaware or

unacknowledged. What makes you different from your participants? Is it race,

ethnicity, social class, education, work experience, physical or mental ability, gender

identity, sexual orientation, etc? How might these differences impede your

investigation (invisibility,insensitivity, overgeneralization, double standards,dichotomization)?

 

Assumptions

What do you need to take for granted to answer your question or test your hypothesis?

(e.g. honest responses from participants, typical population, heuristicvalue of a certain

theory, normal distribution, etc.).

 

Limitations.

Now that you have an idea (from yourliterature review) how broad your topic could be, tell the reader what itis that you are deliberately notgoing to study. What aspects of the problem are outside your interests at this point (or for this paper)? Then, if you had 3 years and $1,000,000 what are some of the things you could or would improve about your design, sample, analysis, etc.

 

 

It is expected that this section will take roughly 15% of your assignment

 

 

Notes on submission

 

This assignment should bemaximal 15 pages in length, double spaced: 2.4 cm border (top and bottom, and left and right margins) Times New Roman Font (size 12). This does not include a title page, references or appendices.

If the assignment is longer the marker will stop reading it at the end of page 15 and award a mark based upon the first 15 pages.

 

This work must be received / uploaded to World Classroom on May 11th 23.59hr.

 

Work for any assessment submitted after this time without receiving prior permission will receive a mark of zero. Before submitting work for this assessment, make sure that this is all your own work, that you have avoided any academic misconduct (e.g. plagiarism), and that you have referenced your work appropriately.

 

 

Marking Guidelines

 

Mark Indicators
Superior Work

Grade A

  • Provides an evidence based rationale for the chosen area
  • Provides up-to-date and relevant literature to support the discussion
  • Area for chosen research is innovative / breaks new ground / demonstrates originality
  • Presents a balanced view of the literature in the chosen area. Full consideration of opposing arguments
  • Demonstrates reading widely around topic and shows thorough understanding of material
  • Clearly considers the context of Management
  • Discusses the implications and benefits for practice
  • Aims and hypotheses are framed within appropriate context
  • Presents a clear research statement e.g. it is clear what is going to be researched
  • Aims and hypotheses are clearly stated i.e. predictions are clear
  • Shows excellent critique of methodology. Makes recommendations to address limitations
  • Identifies a number of specific and relevant organizational/ethical/practical challenges that may impact on this study
  • Clear consideration of ethical issues to do with conducting the research identified
  • Clear consideration of practical considerations to do with conducting the research identified
  • Considers and presents strategies for overcoming ethical and practical issues
  • Produces logical structure e.g. introduction, main body and conclusion. Paper is required length
Good Work

Grade B

  • Provides up-to-date and relevant literature to support the discussion
  • Research fills a gap/enhances the current literature
  • Presents a balanced view of the literature
  • Considers the context of Management
  • Discusses some implications for practice
  • Research area identified and focused on management
  • Aims and hypotheses are written in a coherent way
  • Critiques research and considers pitfalls of methodology, but fails to say how these could be addressed
  • Discusses some specific relevant ethical issues
  • Discusses some specific practical issues
  • Identifies ways to overcome these issues
  • Produces logical structure e.g. introduction, main body and conclusion. Paper is required length but may be too heavily weighted towards a particular section.
Satisfactory Work

Grade C

  • Uses relevant Management literature to support the discussion
  • Reading around the topic is satisfactory but could be broader or more up to date or may focus too heavily on one argument
  • Considers the context of Managementand/or the implications for practice
  • Demonstrates adequate research question and sound methodology but lacks originality / too close to existing research.
  • Area for research and aims/hypotheses identified, may be written as one statement
  • Clearly considers the ethical and/or practical issues
  • Identifies some appropriate strategies for overcoming these issues
  • Paper is mainly logical but may be hard to follow in places or lack a conclusion or a succinct message. Paper is somewhat shorter or longer than required word count.
Passing, but less than satisfactory (Grade D)
  • Lacks a discussion of up-to-date and relevant literature
  • Shows narrow reading and knowledge of topic
  • Fails to consider the context of Management
  • Research question may lack relevance to topic or be practically unrealistic or unethical.
  • Shows little reflection of methodology
  • Little or no discussion of the implications for practice
  • Fails to consider the ethical and/or practical issues
  • Covers a generic list of ethical and/or practical issues, not related to the research identified
  • Omits a consideration of strategies to overcome factors or presents inappropriate suggestions
  • Inadequate structure e.g. fails to include required components/sections, illogical structure, difficult for audience to understand, fails to keep to word limit.
Unsatisfactory. No credit is granted (Grade F)
  • Fails to submit paper with no extenuating circumstances.

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