Management Theory and Practice
Worth 30% of module mark
Submission date for final paper:
One of the reasons for this assignment is to understand the principles of research. The assignment requires students to produce a paper with a maximum of 15 pages review of an area of Managementresearch, design their own research and consider the ethical and practical issues that may occur when conducting applied research.
You are required to review up to date research in ONE of topic area of Management.
The format, which follows, is typical of most journals , and subscribes to APA style.You will need to bring all your written communication skills to this project. You will be very careful with proper citation. The whole of this paper is to be in your words. Ideas and information used from other authors are to be cited.
In your assignment it is important to use the following sections:
- A title page; an abstract; an introduction to the paper;
- The review of literature;What recent research has occurred in this area?
- A Methods section; What research could you conduct to “fill any gaps”?
- What ethical and professional/practical issues may be raised by your research? How might they be addressed?
In order to assist in your preparation for this assignment, please read the following information.
Section One: A title page; an abstract; an introduction to the paper;
Title Page and Credits
Title. The title should summarize the main idea ofthe paper and include the main topic
and actual theoretical issue investigated. Good titles are short (< 20 words) and would serve as a
type of index of the main issues covered. The title should be self-explanatory. Type the title centered, in upper and lower cases, double-spaced. For example:
The Effects of Peer vs Expert Models on Learning a Novel Throwing Skill
Author’s Name and Affiliation.The author’s name and affiliation appears on the title
Running head. Each page of your paper has a brief “title” (running head) printed in
the upper right hand corner of the paper. Itshould be a maximum of 50 characters, and be
followed by the specific page number for that page. A notation as to the specific Running head
should be located in all caps. For example, on your title page you would show:
Running head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL GUIDELINES: APA STYLE
(This is your section header; centered on the page)
The Abstract for the paper isa brief (150-200 words) comprehensive summary of
the research proposal. The word “Abstract” is centered as the first line of type on this page. Type
the abstract as a single paragraph in block format (i.e., without paragraph indentation). You may
also want to list keywords fromyour paper in your abstract. To do this, center the text and type
Keywords:(italicized) and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers
find your work in databases.
The introduction is the opening of the paper, and because of its unique location, does not
require a heading or label. It provides an introduction and statement of the problem that will be
studied (or reviewed). It setsthe stage for the entire paper by establishing the nature of the
question. It should demonstrate why this question was important to you by providing brief
Firstaddress theproblem! State the overall area of concern (populations-at-risk for
injustice or discrimination; need for more functional affiliations for individuals and groups;
unethical policies/practices; lack of knowledge in the field, etc.). Arouse thereader’s interest; tell
the reader what to expect in the rest of your paper. Provide brief statistics to indicate the
incidence of the problem.
Next, discuss how this problem area affects individuals, communities, and society as a whole (what are issues of physical and economic health).
The potential utility of your study can be:
1) an addition to current knowledge of a problem or a vulnerable population;
2) to put theory to an empirical test;
3) to better understand the relationship between variables (e.g., adherence and technology);
or 4) to determine the effectiveness of a treatment method, technology, or program.
In the closing two – three paragraph of theintroduction, establish the need for future
study related to this topic. That is, why did you decide to review this topic? What did your
review of literature tell you (summary)? Whatdo we need to study next to advance knowledge
in this area?
It is expected that this section will take roughly 15% of your assignment
Section Two: What recent research has occurred? (the literature review)
The review of literature should generally begin on a new page. Discuss the literature
related to your proposed study.
Thissection is designed to inform readers about past studies that
have already been conducted, and provides perspectives on your area of interest. The review
should include a brief discussion ofany “classical studies” in thisarea, if appropriate, but the
major portion of the content should focus on the pastdecade of research. It should close with a
logical summary of past research and transition toa statement about what should be studied next.
As you begin, you need to share your theory basewith the readers so they understand how what you are presenting is influenced by that theory base. As you read articles on your topic look for what other authors have to say about a theoretical framework to understand the problem and pointing a direction for solutions. It is a good idea to organize your Review of Literature by topical clusters. In general, it is better to use a topical organization rather than merely reporting studies in chronological order. All research cited must relate specifically to your topic (the question being studied) and should be properly referenced, using APA style.
You will find it easiest to write the entire paper in the past tense, since everything you eventually report has already happened. You should use clear and short sentences that generally avoid the use of personal pronouns (e.g., “I”).
Current research articles may serve as an excellent source to guide you to past research in the specific area. In addition, citation indices, reference books, and other searches will also
help. After you present what is already known, make your case for yourresearch either
answering a new question, getting a new answer to an old question, answering a question
about a new population, etc.
After you have made your case that your research is going to give new information, you will summarize the major points.
Remember that the Introduction discusses the problem. The review of literature should concentrate on
solutions(those that exist, those that are still required).
Finally, you will formulate (in the last sentence) your research question or your hypothesis.
When you cite studies in your review of literature, be sure to properly format the citations
based on APA style.
- Why is this area of current importance? (include recent references)
- What have other researchers done in this area recently?
- What questions remain unanswered?
- What theories exist in this area?
Comment critically on the above questions – are there any methodological issues? Have they overstated their findings? Could their research have been conducted differently? Etc.
It is expected that this section will take roughly 50% of your assignment
N.B. remember to cite all references that you use in this section
Section Three: What research could you conduct to “fill any gaps”? (your research questions and ideas)
This section will directly follow section two and it should be clear to the reader how you have arrived at this position.
Do not introduce the topic again. Introduce the general methodology most authors have
taken on this topic and the one you will be using and why (tie to the literature review). The
purpose is a statement of what you intendto study not what you intend to find.
In this section you will provide a brief overview of the research that you intend to conduct:
- What is the research?
- How will you conduct it? Are you doing qualitative or quantitative research; is it exploratory, descriptive or explanatory? Explain why you are using this type of study and whatyou plan to explore, describe, or explain (again tie it to the literature review).
Do you plan to use interventions, interviews, behavior observation, questionnaires,etc.?
- Who will your participants be?Give as much information about the population that has been gathered from your review of the literature: age range, gender mix, education, etc.
- What questions will it answer? Tie this to final part section of two
- What do you want to study?
- A brief statement that describes the purpose of a potential study
- Presents predictions – what do you think the findings of the study will be?
- 1 or 2 sentences
- REALITY CHECK – can you do the research?
It is expected that this section will take roughly 20% of your assignment
Section four: What ethical and professional/practical issues may be raised by your research? How might they be addressed?
With any research, ethical and professional/practical issues will play a part. What issues could occur in your research?
Ethical issues: follow the BPS Code of Conduct:
- Gaining access to participants
- Real world versus artificial situations
- Timings, how long will the project need to run for to get the required results?
Consider how you could overcome any ethical and professional/practical issues.
Ethical Consideration (Human Participants Protections)
What safeguards are in place in your study to protect human participants? Consider both
emotional and / or physical harm. Consider who the participants are and if children or some other vulnerable population. What is your basic ethical approach? What are the power differentialsbetween you and your participants, and how will you protect themfrom any possible abuses? What steps are you taking to insure informed consent?
We all have biases; the most insidious are those of which we are unaware or
unacknowledged. What makes you different from your participants? Is it race,
ethnicity, social class, education, work experience, physical or mental ability, gender
identity, sexual orientation, etc? How might these differences impede your
investigation (invisibility,insensitivity, overgeneralization, double standards,dichotomization)?
What do you need to take for granted to answer your question or test your hypothesis?
(e.g. honest responses from participants, typical population, heuristicvalue of a certain
theory, normal distribution, etc.).
Now that you have an idea (from yourliterature review) how broad your topic could be, tell the reader what itis that you are deliberately notgoing to study. What aspects of the problem are outside your interests at this point (or for this paper)? Then, if you had 3 years and $1,000,000 what are some of the things you could or would improve about your design, sample, analysis, etc.
It is expected that this section will take roughly 15% of your assignment
Notes on submission
This assignment should bemaximal 15 pages in length, double spaced: 2.4 cm border (top and bottom, and left and right margins) Times New Roman Font (size 12). This does not include a title page, references or appendices.
If the assignment is longer the marker will stop reading it at the end of page 15 and award a mark based upon the first 15 pages.
This work must be received / uploaded to World Classroom on May 11th 23.59hr.
Work for any assessment submitted after this time without receiving prior permission will receive a mark of zero. Before submitting work for this assessment, make sure that this is all your own work, that you have avoided any academic misconduct (e.g. plagiarism), and that you have referenced your work appropriately.
|Passing, but less than satisfactory (Grade D)||
|Unsatisfactory. No credit is granted (Grade F)||
Management Theory and Practice
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