– Grasshopper – pins and clips – glove
– Tray – scissors

External anatomy
1. Identify the head, thorax and abdomen.
2. On the head, identify the pair of antennas and the compound eyes.
3. Identify the ocelli.
4. On the thorax, identify the two pairs of wings (anterior and posterior). Compare the two different pairs of wings. What do you notice?
5. Study the three pairs of legs. Using the scissors, remove one of the forelegs. Identify each part of the paw.
6. On the first segment of the abdomen, find the eardrum. Then identify the spiracles.
7. Identify the sex of the grasshopper. Females have an ovipositor at the end of the abdomen. The male does not have this structure.

8. Using the pliers, carefully remove the parts of the mouth and identify each by name. the diagram below can help you.

The parts of the mouth are specialized to tear and chew the leaves. During feeding, the food is held in place by the legs, the labium and the labrum. The salivary glands lubricate the food which is then chewed by the mandibles.
Comparison / Function Part
Labium The lower lip
Hypopharynx Language
Labre The upper lip
Mandible Wide jaw with teeth moving up and down
Maxille Small jaw that moves from left to right and helps with taste.

Internal anatomy
1. Remove the wings and legs and use the scissors at an angle, cut around the chest to remove it from the grasshopper.
2. At the posterior end, make two lateral incisions towards the head. Remove the exoskeleton.
* If it is a female, it is possible to see several eggs in the abdominal cavity (resemble grains of rice). They must be removed in order to continue the dissection.
3. Identify the heart that is represented by a series of lozenges. Gently remove the adipose bodies (white and flaky material that hide the other organs) to observe the other organs.
4. Observe and identify the organs of the digestive system. Remove muscle tissue to see the digestive tract.
5. Note that the mouth leads to the pharynx that becomes the esophagus. In turn, the esophagus becomes the jabot (an enlarged bag). The region where the crop shrinks sharply becomes the gizzard. Gastro-gastric (6-8 small bags) are around the stomach and help with digestion. The intestine runs along the rest of the abdomen to the anus. Malpighi tubes extending along the abdomen can also be seen. These excretory organs serve to filter and purify the hemolymph.

Ask the teacher to verify your identifications.

Laboratory report to submit ______________________.
• Title Page – APA Format
• Section 1- External anatomy: Digraph including identifiable parts of external anatomy as well as 10 observations including description and function / role. In addition, add a paragraph following the diagram that demonstrates what can be seen including comparisons for your observations).
• Section 2 – Internal Anatomy: Describe the digestive system of the grasshopper (explains the path of food by identifying important organs / structures and their roles).
• Section 3 – Internal Anatomy: Describe the reproductive system (explains the expulsion and pathway of male spermatozoa to the fertilization of eggs within the female and finally the development of larvae).
• Bibliography (minimum of two sources) – APA method

Last Updated on February 10, 2019