Example of a Formal Outline
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Directions: Research and develop an informative speech on a topic that is both interesting and meaningful to not only you but also the audience. Everyone needs to turn in the following items for their speech. NO VISUAL AIDS CAN BE USED IN THIS SPEECH!
1. A typed formal outline! Not a speaking outline or outline template.
2. Instead of a work cited page, here is what I want you to do. You need 4 or more sources! Only one can be Internet! Instead of the work cited page, please photo copy the material instead. For example, if you used a book as a source, you would only have to photocopy the cover of the book and pages that you used in the book. Again, you don’t have to photocopy the whole book, just the pages that you used. You would also have to highlight or circle the information on the photocopied page that you used for the research. This rule also applies to magazines and journals. REMEMBER to photo copy the cover so that I know where you got it from and highlight/circle the info you used! If you have a website, just print out the pages you used and the first page, or home page, for the site.
3. A USB drive with at least 1 gig of memory available.
Time: 5 to 6:30 minutes long. Every 10 seconds over/under time will be a 5-point time penalty.
When do I speak? We will pick speaking dates in class. If you’re not present when speaking dates are picked, you will automatically be scheduled to speak on the first day of speeches.
Content of the outline 20 points
Must have informative value so that we learn from it.
Must offer us enough information so that it is not vague.
Sources need to be attached and properly cited in the outline.
No outline will be accepted without all 4 sources attached.
The outline must be formal and follow the example I gave you, specifically
with tabs, spaces and headings. For example, AG, Topic, CRED, PS, and RCI.
Organization/Delivery 80 points
Your introduction, body, and conclusion must be distinguishable.
Introduction has clever attention-getting material (AG), clearly states the topic (T), establishes credibility/goodwill (CRED/GW), and previews main points (PS).
Body has 3 main points (MP1, MP2 and MP3) with transitions between each main point.
Conclusion Signals the end (STE) of the speech as well as reviews central idea (RCI) and refers back to the attention getter (RBTAG).
Speech is not to be read to the audience. Extemporaneous delivery!
Speaker has eye contact with the audience.
Speech must flow and not use a lot of vocal/verbal pauses (um, likes, ugh)
Speakers voice is loud and clear.
Speaker cites all 4 of their sources with date of publication.
Example of a Formal Outline
***The layout of your outline should mirror this outline. For example, notice the spacing and tabs of the outline indicated with the arrows.
As you can see the indicates how the beginning of each sentence lines up. Also, notice the sources are clearly underlined and the date of the source appears before or after it.
Topic: Changes in Dentistry
General Purpose: To inform
Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the changes in dentistry that affects their teeth.
Central Idea: In order to comprehend the field of dentistry painful past but advancing future it is important to know the history, latest discoveries and technologies of the present day, and what the future of dentistry holds.
Main Points: I. The history of dentistry.
II. The latest discoveries and technologies of present day dentistry.
III. What the future of dentistry holds.
AG: Five thousand years ago the Babylonians believed that the cause of cavities was a magical worm that wanted to live inside their teeth, so it invaded people’s mouths and burrowed through their enamel.
T: The field of dentistry has a crude and painful past, but it is currently advancing toward an amazingly painless future.
Cred/GW: As someone who works in the field of dentistry and plans on becoming one, I feel that I’m qualified to talk about the topic. Also, because you’ll hopefully have teeth, you will need to know more about them to appreciate and keep them.
PS: Let’s first examine the history of dentistry. Then we can brush up on the latest in discoveries and technologies of the present. To finish with my speech, we will take a look ahead at what the future of dentistry holds.
(Transition: So let’s begin at the roots and discuss the painful origin of the dental field.)
MP 1: People complain about their dentistry today, but dentistry of the past was really harsh.
Dental practice has been around since civilization has been around. According to the December 2000 book, Dental Science in a New Age, archaeologists examined Egyptian mummies and discovered the first evidence of extracted teeth, false teeth, and even bridges. Smithsonian scientists discovered the first evidence of a filled tooth in a Native American, dated 1100AD! Back then dentistry was painful. In fact, Hippocrates dedicated 32 pages of his writings entitled, “The agony of the toothache.” It was so painful because tooth decay was just scraped out with a curved pointed pick or, the bad tooth was wrenched right from the jaw with pliers. Anesthesia or pain relievers did not exist back then! Neither did Dental insurance!
(Transition: Okay, the past was bad, so now let’s brush up on the latest in present dentistry)
MP 2: Today in dentistry, there are some interesting discoveries and technological advances.
According to the November 2000 issue of New York Times, one discovery is that gum disease is a major risk factor for heart disease. Oral bacteria enter the bloodstream by small ulcers in the gums. This bacteria causes the blood to from clumps. These clumps circulate throughout our system and when they reach the heart, they can block a heart valve or cause one to become infected. According to scientist from www.ada.org, last accessed on November 2, 2001, they reported that gum disease is contagious! It can be transmitted through mouth-to-mouth contact. As if kissing didn’t get enough people in trouble already! New discoveries aren’t all that is happening in dentistry. Today we have amazing advances in technology. The New Ionic toothbrush removes plaque through magnetic charges. Our teeth normally have a negative charge in polarity, and plaque has a positive charge. Since opposite charges attract, plaque is bonded to our teeth through ionic charges, that is, until a dentist scrapes it off. But the bristles on the ionic toothbrush send out negative charges that temporarily change the polarity of our teeth from negative to positive. When our teeth become positively charged like plaque, there is no more ionic bond and the plaque falls off. Test results show that the ionic toothbrush was 47% more effective than regular brushing, according to Chemist and Druggist, June 1998. The ionic toothbrush is amazing, but it is not nearly amazing as today’s laser drill. The laser drill is easy to operate and has many advantages to the old drill. According to the May 1997 Newsweek, the laser is totally painless. It was tested over 1300 teeth and only 3 people requested anesthesia. That means with the laser drill, novocain is not necessary. Another advantage to the laser drill is that it sterilizes everything it touches, so infections are greatly reduced.
(Transition: Recent discoveries may sound great, but what the future holds for dentistry is even better!)
MP 3: Three major future developments include genetics tests for gum disease, an option to dentures and a vaccine for cavities.
According to the American Dental Association website updated December 2001, researchers have identified a gene that indicates if a person will have gum disease and will use this information to test people to see who will get gum disease. These researchers say that over a third of the population carry this gene and are six times more likely to develop gum disease. In addition to generic tests, scientists are now developing a new kind of dental implant. Some day dentist will implant titanium teeth in your mouth to replace your natural teeth rendering dentures totally obsolete. This development would eliminate the pain and discomfort associated with dentures, according to the July 1996 Consumer Reports. As if titanium implants weren’t enough, scientist are trying to eliminate cavities altogether with a vaccine. The Toronto Sun Newspaper from May of 1998 tells us that researchers are engineering a bacterium that when swallowed, causes the body to release anti-cavity antibodies in the saliva. This development would put many of us at ease and of course, many dentists out of a job.
STE/ RCI & RBTAG Today we traveled through the time line of dentistry. We saw some of the crude, painful practices of early dentistry, discussed the latest in discoveries and technologies of today, and finally took a look at what the future of dentistry holds for us. Of course we snicker at those ancient Babylonians who thought a tiny worm caused cavities, but knowing that microscopic bacteria is the cause of most dental problems, they weren’t far off.
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