The cervical spine is separated into two different regions Cervicoencephalic (C0 to C2) and Cervicobrachial(C3- C7). List 5 symptoms that are consistent with injuries to the C0- C2 region of the spine.
Can an upper cervical spine injure C0- C2 cause cranial nerve dysfunctions? Yes/No
Compare and contrast characteristics of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae:
What is a Vertebral Artery Sign and when would you perform this test? Include in your answer common symptoms of vertebral artery insufficiency.
Briefly explain why there are 8 cervical nerves but only 7 cervical vertebrae:
Define a Cervical Radiculopathy:
Describe how Disc Herniations in the Cervical Spine present:
Define Cervical Myelopathy:
Why is C7 a common level of injury for the cervical spine?
Explain why above C4 nerve root injuries the symptoms do not go down the arm?
Using the table on page 177 explain how nerve impingement at each level would impact functioning:
What is a structural scoliosis vs. a non-structural or functional Scoliosis:
Why do some cause a rib hump? Discuss segment of the spine and anatomy that contributes to this:
Draw right thoracic Scoliosis curve and a left lumbar scoliosis curve.
Lumbar Spine –
Define an Apophyseal Joint or Facet Joint: (include % of weight bearing for normal and abnormal lumbar posture):
What are the functions of the intervertebral disc?
Discs are primarily avascular and aneural – what does that mean as far as their ability to heal?
Would an injury to the disc alone cause pain? YES/NO
Why do disc protrusions cause pain?
What happens to the intervertebral discs as they age?
Pg. 553 green box “activity and percentage increase in disc pressure at L3”
What is the least stressful activity for disc pressure at L3?_____________________________
List 2 of the most stressful activities for disc pressure at L3.
Pg. 555. List 3 reasons that L5- S1 is the most common site of degeneration in the lumbar spine:
Read the list of red flags for back pain located in table 9-6, pg. 566. Provide 10 history questions that would lead you to discover these red flags and report them to a Physician:
EXAMPLE: How did this pain begin? May indicate that the pain is constant, progressive, and nonmechanical.
How could you determine whether a patient is experiencing intermittent claudication related to vascular compromise vs neurological dysfunction?
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