Please answer the following Architecture questions fully. Some questions have multiples parts. When there are multiple parts, all parts must be answered. Responses should be in the form that you would give in a classroom-based exam. Responses should be in your own words, based on your understanding of the topic area, and should not be based on or include reference material. Please be aware that your exam will be run through turnitin.com and plagiarizing will earn a grade of 0.
There is no expected length for a response. In general, each response should be a paragraph or two, and certainly no more than 1 ½ pages (double spaced).
Each question has a value of 14 points. 2 points are given for name and dateJ
Architecture Final Exam
- Identify and explain a minimum of 6 benefits of an Enterprise Architecture program.
EA program provides many benefits to the business and IT sector in many different ways some of these ways are:
- Provide a clear vision to understand each section of the enterprise like policies, rules, process, and roles.
- Providing full mechanism for management success
- Providing clear understanding for the business goals and that will improve thebusiness process because the EA will restructure the business.
- Solve the Enterprise duplication by introduce the shared service model
- Improve the decision-making with regarding to organization splitting and contracting.
- EA give a guarantee to the business with regard to business governance and compliances.
- EA provide a mechanism to convert the strategy to Executable project
- EA help to reduce the time and cost, the time for deliver the service or solution and the cost by reuse service and solutions that already exist in the organization.
- EA effect on the IT roadmaps and help to improve the planning for resource skills and training.
- EA manage and implement the security with regard to design a solution for the organizations.
- What is the purpose of an Enterprise Architecture framework? What value does it add? Give two examples of Enterprise Architecture frameworks, other than the Zachman Framework, and one fact about each.
An Enterprise Architecture framework help to create the framework of the Enterprise Architectureby provide a collection of various practices:
- to createa methodology for defining the architecture by using a set of concepts and a system in terms of building blocks
- To link the concepts and make them fit together.
- to contain a set of tools
- To create a list of standard and compliant products, to be a concept and that should help for building blocks.
EA Framework offer a structured and systematic methodology to design systems. It’s relies on high-level abstraction levels referred to as views. The views provide unique perspectives of systems and models. Every architectural framework has its underlying focus and goals. So, it allows us to understand a structural structure also creates an ideal methodology to address business alignment and system complexity.
The Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework
The OEAF is a hybrid EA framework which was influenced by TOGAF, FEA, and Gartner
The Federal Enterprise architecture Framework refers to enterprise models in segmented forms and It uses segmented reference models to describe the specific enterprise.
- Please provide a comprehensive explanation of Enterprise Architecture principles. Include in your answer – What is the purpose of EA principles – how are they used? Give 2 examples of fully formatted principles using the TOGAF structure.
principles are general rules and guidelines, intended to be enduring andseldom amended, that inform and support the way in which an organization setsabout fulfilling its mission.
Principles are general rules and guidelines, intended to be enduring and seldom amended, that inform and support the way in which an organization sets about fulfilling its mission.
In their turn, principles may be just one element in a structured set of ideas that collectively define and guide the organization, from values through to actions and results.
Depending on the organization, principles may be established at any or all of three levels : Architecture
- Enterprise principles provide a basis for decision-making throughout an enterprise, and inform how the organization sets about fulfilling its mission. Such enterprise-level principles are commonly found in governmental and not-for-profit organizations, but are encountered in commercial organizations also, as a means of harmonizing decision-making across a distributed organization. In particular, they are a key element in a successful architecture governance strategy.
- Information Technology(IT) principles provide guidance on the use and deployment of all IT resources and assets across the enterprise. They are developed in order to make the information environment as productive and cost-effective as possible.
- Architectureprinciples are a subset of IT principles that relate to architecture work. They reflect a level of consensus across the enterprise, and embody the spirit and thinking of the enterprise architecture. Architecture principles can be further divided into:
- Principles that govern the architecture process, affecting the development, maintenance, and use of the enterprise architecture
- Principles that govern the implementation of the architecture, establishing the first tenets and related guidance for designing and developing information systems
These sets of principles form a hierarchy, in that IT principles will be informed by, and elaborate on, the principles at the enterprise level; and architecture principles will likewise be informed by the principles at the two higher levels.
The remainder of this section deals exclusively with architecture principles.
The principles can be applied in a number of different ways: Architecture
- To provide a framework within which the enterprise can start to make conscious decisions about IT
- As a guide to establishing relevant evaluation criteria, thus exerting strong influence on the selection of products or product architectures in the later stages of managing compliance to the IT architecture
- As drivers for defining the functional requirements of the architecture
- As an input to assessing both existing IS/IT systems and the future strategic portfolio, for compliance with the defined architectures. These assessments will provide valuable insights into the transition activities needed to implement an architecture, in support of business goals and priorities
- The Rationale statements (see below) highlight the value of the architecture to the enterprise, and therefore provide a basis for justifying architecture activities
- The Implications statements (see below) provide an outline of the key tasks, resources, and potential costs to the enterprise of following the principle; they also provide valuable inputs to future transition initiative and planning activities
- Support the architecture governance activities in terms of:
- Providing a “back-stop” for the standard Architecture Compliance assessments where some interpretation is allowed or required
- Supporting the decision to initiate a dispensation request where the implications of a particular architecture amendment cannot be resolved within local operating procedure
Architecture Business Principles
- Without this principle, exclusions, favoritism, and inconsistency would rapidly undermine the management of information.
- Information management initiatives will not begin until they are examined for compliance with the principles.
- A conflict with a principle will be resolved by changing the framework of the initiative.
Maximize Benefit to the Enterprise
This principle embodies “service above self”. Decisions made from an enterprise-wide perspective have greater long-term value than decisions made from any particular organizational perspective. Maximum return on investment requires information management decisions to adhere to enterprise-wide drivers and priorities. No minority group will detract from the benefit of the whole. However, this principle will not preclude any minority group from getting its job done.
- Achieving maximum enterprise-wide benefit will require changes in the way we plan and manage information. Technology alone will not bring about this change.
- Some organizations may have to concede their own preferences for the greater benefit of the entire enterprise.
- Application development priorities must be established by the entire enterprise for the entire enterprise.
- Applications components should be shared across organizational boundaries.
- Information management initiatives should be conducted in accordance with the enterprise plan. Individual organizations should pursue information management initiatives which conform to the blueprints and priorities established by the enterprise. We will change the plan as we need to.
- As needs arise, priorities must be adjusted. A forum with comprehensive enterprise representation should make these decisions.
- Explain the difference between current and future state architectures with respect to Enterprise Architecture.
- What are the typical sub-architectures or domainsthat comprise the enterprise architecture of an enterprise? How would an Enterprise Architectlearn more about those sub-architectures in a particular enterprise? For each sub-architecture, identify at least two artifacts that can be identified to document the current state of the sub-architecture.
The following are the architecture domain definitions:
- Business Architecture
- Information Architecture
- Data Architecture
- Application Architecture
- Technology Architecture
- Describe the Enterprise Architecture Roadmap. What is its purpose?
An EA Roadmap is an ordered sequence of Enterprise Architecture initiatives that are required in order to make the transition from the current enterprise Architecture baseline to the future target Enterprise Architecture vision. The initiatives are based on the planned architecture requirements such as Topics and Gaps to be analyzed and architecture decisions and recommendations that will be required.
A roadmap’s primary purpose is to facilitate consensus on the implementation approach for a given strategy. Orchestrating the sequence and aligning activities for the implementation teams is a secondary purpose. Both are important, but it is consensus that drives the most value. A roadmap has multiple value points:
Value point 1 – Consensus on direction. The first roadmap value point is creating consensus on the approach to strategy implementation. The roadmap answers the question, “Do we agree on this specific approach to reach our goal?” No one roadmap can clearly be the absolute best alternative – there are too many variables to analyze. The goal is to get a majority of stakeholders to agree that this specific roadmap will realize the intended objective and that they cannot offer a better option.
Value point 2 – Facilitate investment decisions. Here the roadmap answers the question, “Are stakeholders willing to invest?” Even broad stakeholder agreement does not guarantee the necessary investments to bring a roadmap to life. Investment depends on many factors including: available of funding, availability of skills, and prioritization of the goal against all other competing opportunities. Maybe the roadmap’s objective is simply too expensive. A roadmap creates value by clarifying the investment decisions executives must make. A decision not to invest is not a reflection on the roadmap’s value. If a roadmap brings clarity to the investment process, it has done its job and provided value.
Value point 3 – Efficient execution. Well-designed roadmaps sequence investments to ensure maximum return. Most roadmaps require participation from multiple stakeholders. Without an agreed to sequence of events, organizations run the risk of making investments in building capabilities that must sit idle waiting for other participants to complete their work.
Value point 4 – Improved strategy management. Value point four answers the question, “Did executing the roadmap in fact result in the attainment of the intended objective, and did attaining the objective result in the expected business benefits?” This is the validation of the roadmap process. Roadmaps provide a repeatable process to clarify and gain consensus on strategic investments. Successful roadmaps give the organization confidence that future roadmaps will produce the desired results. Unsuccessful roadmaps inform business architects where the need to improve the process.
- Why is governance important to the Enterprise Architecture program? What is being governed, and for what purpose?
The primary purpose of enterprise architecture (EA) governance is to ensure that an organization’s IT investments are
closely aligned with business goals and processes, so that limited IT resources are allocated to areas of highest impact
on organizational performance. While the overriding concern of EA governance is the effectiveness of the IT
investments, the EA program itself needs to be governed as well, since an incorrectly developed EA could adversely
impact the IT investment decisions that are based on it. Therefore the EA governance described in this article addresses
two primary objectives:
Ensure that the EA program is properly managed and that it produces artifacts and plans that are truly representative of
organizational goals and needs.
Ensure that the IT investment decisions are being continually aligned with the EA from the point they are initiated until
the governance of the organization’s architectures provides not only direct control and guidance of their development and implementation, but also extends into the operations of the implemented architectures.
The following benefits have been found to be derived through the continuing governance of architectures:
- Links IT processes, resources, and information to organizational strategies and objectives
- Integrates and institutionalizes IT best practices
- Aligns with industry frameworks such as COBIT (planning and organizing, acquiring and implementing, delivering and supporting, and monitoring IT performance)
- Enables the organization to take full advantage of its information, infrastructure, and hardware and software assets
- Protects the underlying digital assets of the organization
- Supports regulatory and best practice requirements such as auditability, security, responsibility, and accountability
- Promotes visible risk management
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