Astronomy

Please read the news releases listed below about predicting volcanic eruptions and consequential impacts. Based on what you have learned in the course thus far about volcanoes and their associated hazards, and other fact-based information you may find via the library or Internet, do you think that cities should be located so close to volcanoes and, if the eruptions can be predicted, can there truly be an evacuation plan developed to save all lives in the event or an eruption?

1) http://www.oregonlive.com/pacific-northwest-news/index.ssf/2016/08/the_great_northwest_quake_sure.html

2) http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-37358316

Week 1

Chapter 15: The Nature of the Solar System

15.1 Ancient Astronomy

  • geocentric
  • celestial sphere
  • heliocentric
  • Ptolemaic system
  • retrograde motion

15.2 The Birth of Modern Astronomy

  • astronomical unit
  • inertia
  • law of universal gravitation

15.3 Our Solar System: An Overview nebular theory

  • solar nebula
  • planetesimal
  • protoplanet
  • terrestrial planet
  • Jovian planet
  • escape velocity
  • impact crater

15.4 Earth’s Moon: A Chip Off the Old Block

  • maria
  • lunar highlands
  • lunar regolith

15.5 Terrestrial Planets

15.6 Jovian Planets

  • cryovolcanism

15.7 Small Solar System Bodies

  • small solar system body
  • dwarf planet
  • asteroid
  • asteroid belt
  • comet
  • nucleus
  • coma
  • Kuiper belt
  • Oort cloud
  • meteor
  • meteoroid
  • meteor shower
  • Meteorite

 

 

Week 2

Chapter 1: Matter and Minerals

1.1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks

  • Mineralogy
  • Mineral
  • Rock

1.2 Atoms: Building Blocks of Minerals

  • Atom
  • Nucleus
  • Proton
  • Neutron
  • Electron
  • Valence electron
  • Atomic number
  • Element
  • Periodic table
  • Chemical compound

1.3 Why Atoms Bond

  • Octet rule
  • Chemical bond
  • Ionic bond
  • Ion
  • Covalent bond
  • Metallic bond

1.4 Properties of Minerals

  • Diagnostic property
  • Ambiguous property
  • Luster
  • Color
  • Steak
  • Crystal shape(habit)
  • Hardness
  • Mohs scale
  • Cleavage
  • Fracture
  • Tenacity
  • Density
  • Specific gravity

1.5 Mineral Groups

  • Rock-forming mineral
  • Economic mineral
  • Silicate
  • Nonsilicate
  • Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
  • Light silicate mineral
  • Potassium feldspar
  • Plagioclase feldspar
  • Quartz
  • Muscovite
  • Clay mineral
  • Dark silicate mineral
  • Olivine
  • Augite
  • Hornblende
  • Biotite
  • Garnet
  • Calcite
  • Dolomite
  • Halite gypsum

Chapter 2: Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

2.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

  • Rock cycle

2.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

  • Igneous rock
  • magma
  • lava
  • Extrusive(volcanic) rock
  • Intrusive(plutonic) rock
  • Granitic(felsic)
  • composition
  • Basaltic(mafic)
  • composition
  • Andesitic(intermediate) composition
  • ultramafic
  • peridotite
  • texture
  • Fine-grained texture
  • Coarse-grained texture
  • Porphyritic texture
  • phenocryst
  • groundmass
  • Vesicular texture
  • Glassy texture
  • Pyroclastic (fragmental) texture
  • granite
  • rhyolite
  • obsidian
  • pumice
  • andesite
  • diorite
  • basalt
  • gabbro
  • Bowen’s reaction series
  • Crystal settling
  • Magmatic differentiation

2.3 Weathering of Rocks to Form Sediment

  • Mechanical weathering frost wedging
  • sheeting
  • Exfoliation dome
  • Chemical weathering
  • Carbonic acid

2.4 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

  • Sedimentary rock
  • sediment
  • Detrital sedimentary rock
  • conglomerate
  • breccia
  • sandstone
  • shale
  • siltstone
  • Chemical sedimentary rock
  • Biochemical sedimentary rock
  • limestone
  • coquina
  • travertine
  • Evaporite deposit
  • coal
  • lithification
  • compaction
  • cementation
  • Strata(beds)
  • fossil

2.5 Metamorphic Rocks: New Rock from Old

  • Metamorphic rock
  • Metamorphism
  • Contact metamorphism
  • Regional
  • metamorphism
  • Confining pressure
  • Differential stress
  • foliation
  • nonfoliated
  • slate
  • phyllite
  • schist
  • gneiss
  • marble
  • quartzite

 

Week 3

Chapter 5: Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Revolution Unfolds

5.1 From Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics

5.2 Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time

  • Continental drift
  • Supercontinent
  • Pangaea

5.3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

  • Theory of plate tectonics
  • Lithosphere
  • Asthenosphere
  • Lithospheric plate (plate)

5.4 Divergent Plate Boundaries and Seafloor Spreading

  • Divergent plate boundary (spreading center)
  • Oceanic ridge system
  • Rift valley
  • Seafloor spreading
  • Continental rift

5.5 Convergent Plate Boundaries and Subduction

  • Convergent plate boundary (subduction zones)
  • Deep-ocean trenches
  • Partial melting
  • Continental volcanic arcs
  • volcanic island arcs (island arc)

5.6 Transform Plate Boundaries

  • Transform plate boundary (transform fault)
  • Fracture zone

5.7 How Do Plates and Plate Boundaries Change?

5.8 Testing the Plate Tectonics Model

  • Mantle plume
  • Hot spot
  • Hot-spot track
  • Curie point
  • Netism (fossil magnetism)
  • Magnetic reversal
  • Normal polarity
  • Reverse polarity
  • Magnetic time scale
  • magnetometer

5.9 What Drives Plate Motions?

  • Convection
  • Slab pull
  • Ridge push

Chapter 8: Geologic Time

8.1 A Brief History of Geology

  • Catastrophism
  • uniformitarianism

8.2 Creating a Time Scale—Relative Dating Principles

  • Numerical sate
  • Relative date
  • Principle of superposition
  • Principle of original horizontality
  • Principle of lateral continuity
  • Principle of cross-cutting relationships
  • Inclusion
  • Conformable
  • Unconformity
  • Angular
  • Unconformity
  • Disconformity
  • nonconformity

8.3 Fossils: Evidence of Past Life

  • Fossil
  • paleontology

8.4 Correlation of Rock Layers

  • Correlation
  • Principle of fossil succession
  • Index fossil
  • Fossil assemblage

8.5 Determining Numerical Dates with Radioactivity

  • Radioactivity
  • Radioactive decay
  • Radiometric dating
  • Half-life
  • Radiocarbon dating

8.6 The Geologic Time Scale

  • Geologic time scale
  • Eon
  • Phanerozoic eon
  • Era
  • Paleozoic era
  • Mesozoic era
  • Cenozoic era
  • Period
  • Epoch
  • Precambrian

8.7 Determining Numerical Dates for Sedimentary Strata

 

Week 4

Chapter 6: Restless Earth: Earthquakes and Mountain Building

6.1 What Is an Earthquake?

6.2 Seismology: The Study of Earthquake Waves

6.3 Where Do Most Earthquakes Occur?

6.4 Determining the Size of an Earthquake

6.5 Earthquake Destruction

6.6 Earth’s Interior

6.7 Rock Deformation

6.8 Folds: Structures Formed by Ductile Deformation

6.9 Faults and Joints: Structures Formed by Brittle Deformation

6.10 Mountain Building

6.11 Subduction and Mountain Building

6.12 Collisional Mountain Belts

Chapter 7: Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity

7.1 Mount St. Helens Versus Kilauea

7.2 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions

7.3 Materials Extruded During an Eruption

7.4 Anatomy of a Volcano

7.5 Shield Volcanoes

7.6 Cinder Cones

7.7 Composite Volcanoes

7.8 Volcanic Hazards

7.9 Other Volcanic Landforms

7.10 Intrusive Igneous Activity

7.11 Origin of Magma

7.12 Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

 

 

 

Last Updated on February 10, 2019