Annotated bibliography, how to write a research paper

WRITING PROJECT 3: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Description

OVERVIEW: For your Writing Project 3, Annotated Bibliography, you will find, select, and annotate at least 7 relevant, up-to-date, and credible sources which respond to an issue, problem, or controversy related in some way to core readings and which provide information and perspectives that will assist you in answering one or more specific research questions.

This project is linked with the next project in the sequence. The sources and perspectives you collect in Writing Project 3 will provide you with the knowledge and evidence you need to take an informed position on your topic in Writing Project 4, Argument. For now, you will focus on exploring your topic, collecting relevant information, formally describing and annotating the sources you collect, and synthesizing information from your sources in a Topic Exploration Statement of your Annotated Bibliography.

1 Explore the topic

An Annotated Bibliography is a type of formal academic composition required in many classes. In this class, your Annotated Bibliography will help you gather the sources of information you need to be successful with the next project (Writing Project 4, Argument).

This project will include three parts: a Research Rationale, a list of Source Citations with Annotations, and a Topic Exploration Statement. In addition, your first draft will include a Purpose Statement (like other first drafts for this class), and your final draft will include a Cover Letter (like other final drafts for this class).

Since the topic you select and the sources you collect for the Annotated Bibliography will form the basis of your evidence for Writing Project 4, Argument, it is important to select a topic wisely, to create interesting and valid research questions, and to devote sufficient time to your research and annotations.

As you develop your topic idea, prior to conducting your research, do the following:

BUILD ON CORE READINGS AND THE COURSE THEME

The problem, issue, or controversy you research must be derived from the CORE READINGS in one of two ways: (1) it must either be inspired by a problem or issue addressed in one of the core readings, or (2) it must relate to the overall theme of the core readings selected by your instructor (if you are unsure what this theme is, contact your instructor).Note: If you choose, you may use the topic you developed for the M07 and M08 Discussion, “Every Picture Tells a Story,” or you may develop a new topic. In either case, the problem, issue, or controversy chosen must relate to the core readings in some way.

DEVELOP A RESEARCH QUESTION (OR QUESTIONS)

Before you begin your research, create one or more related research questions on your topic that you will use to guide your research. Your research question(s) should ask about things you are genuinely curious about when it comes to your topic and should ALSO address aspects of your topic you think others are interested in and/or need to be more knowledgeable about.

WRITE YOUR RESEARCH RATIONALE

Your Annotated Bibliography should start with a brief research rationale. This is your “reason” for doing your research. Your research rationale should be 1-2 paragraphs in which you…
1. Describe the issue, problem, or controversy you are researching (as you understand it prior to conducting research);
2. Identify the relationship between your topic idea and either one of the core readings or the theme of the core readings selected by your instructor;
3. Explain the significance or relevance of yourtopic ideato you personally;
4. Identify potential audiences who may be interested in or who should care about your research and explain why;
5. Describe what you hope to discover in your research;
6. Write one to three research questions that will guide your research (Step 1 of CHAPTER 3 in Writing: Ten Core Concepts, provides guidance on how to write these questions).
2 Find supporting research
Once you’ve established your topic, your research question(s), and your rationale, use the Ivy Tech Library subscription databases to find your sources. Although you will have some options to use other types of sources as well, database research in the Ivy Tech Library subscription databases will be required as the backbone of your research process.

TYPES OF SOURCES TO FIND

• At least 1 source must be one of the CORE READINGS from your section’s unique group of thematic core readings.
• At least 5 sources must be found in the Ivy Tech Library subscription databases (such as EBSCO, ProQuest, LexisNexis Academic, NewsBank, Opposing Viewpoints, CQ Researcher, etc.).

• The 7th source may be an additional database source, an additional CORE READING, or an additional source of another type, such as a reputable open web source, video, podcast, personal interview, documentary film, television news story, etc. For example, you may include one of the web articles you found in the M09 and M10 Discussion, “Fact, Opinion, or Just Plain Fake?”
• You may include more than 7 sources, but this is not required. Additional sources beyond 7 may be of any type.

• Use online sources:Since this is an online course, it is expected that you will find your sources online (in the Ivy Tech Library subscription databases or on reputable websites). DO NOT USE PRINT BOOKS OR MAGAZINES for this project unless you have received specific permission from your instructor.

EVALUATING YOUR SOURCES

As you search for sources, select those that you think will help you answer the research question(s) you proposed and that will help you develop a comprehensive understanding of your topic, offer different opinions or perspectives regarding the problem, issue, or controversy you are researching, and taken together, give you an overview of the issue from any sides.

As well, ALL of the sources you collect should also meet the criteria for evaluating sources described in CHAPTER 22 of Writing: Ten Core Concepts. These include evaluating the credibility, reliability, bias, and usefulness of each source. (Note: You may also review the IvyTILT Exercises and the Reliable Sources page in Module 9 for more help with evaluating sources.)
3 Write and format

After you have collected and evaluated your sources, continue writing your Annotated Bibliography, by doing the following:

LIST YOUR SOURCE CITATIONS

Write your source citations (at least 7, as defined above) in APA or MLA style, as assigned by your instructor. The source citations should be listed in References or Works Cited format: double-spaced, using hanging indents, and alphabetized by author’s last name. Use the links, videos, and other resources provided on the APA Format and Citation page or the MLA Format and Citation page to construct correct APA or MLA citations.

WRITE YOUR ANNOTATIONS

After each source citation, include an annotation that briefly summarizes and evaluates the source. To summarize and evaluate each source, each annotation should contain the following 5 parts. Use the questions below to stimulate your thinking about each source, addressing the questions that apply to the source. Be sure to clearly label each of these 5 parts:

• The Writer(s): Identify and describe the author(s) of the cited source. What are this person’s credentials or his/her authority on this issue? How do you know this writer is a trustworthy or reputable source of information on this issue?

• The Publication: Identify and describe the journal, magazine, newspaper, website, or organization where the source was published. Who are the intended readers for this kind of publication? How do you know that this publication is a trustworthy or reputable source for information on this issue?

• The Summary:In your own words, identify the type of source, state the main claim or conclusion of this source, and summarize the key supporting points or examples supporting the main claim. Is the source a newspaper article, a professional journal article, an opinion piece or editorial, a scientific report, or some other type of source? What claim or main idea, if any, is being argued? What significant information is provided?What does this source say?

• The Stance: Identify and describe the rhetorical situation for the source. What do you know about the original purpose and the original audience for this source? How does the author intend to affect the audience? Does the source try to persuade readers to change their views or actions? Does it attempt to inform readers about it? Does it attempt to entertain? (Note: It could do all three in some way). Can you recognize any bias in the author’s approach? For example, what is this writer’s “stake” in the issue, and how has this writer’s profession, affiliations, experiences, interests, or personal values influenced her/his position? Does the author stress certain details and leave out other important details related to the topic? How reliable, current, complete, and accurate is the evidence used by the author of the source?

• The Use: What use can YOU make of this source in understanding the topic or writing the next writing project? How does this source help you answer your research question(s)? How does it suggest more areas to explore or deeper questions to answer? What significantquote, a paraphrase, a general reaction, or a theme or idea from this source might you include in your Topic Exploration Statement or in your next project (Writing Project 4, Argument).
4 Synthesize
After you have cited and annotated your sources, you will explore some of the ideas and information you’ve uncovered about your topic by writing your Topic Exploration Statement:

TOPIC EXPLORATION STATEMENT

In this statement, you will examine the information and ideas contained in the sources you collected, looking for evidence from those sources to define your topic in a meaningful way for your audience and analyze its controversies and competing perspectives. This may include answering several of the questions below:

• How would you define the topic now that you have researched it? How has your understanding of the topic changed from the initial impressions you had of it (especially compared to what you wrote in your Research Rationale)?

• What are the key controversies or competing perspectives on your topic as a whole? What are the major disputed views or disagreements?
• How do your sources agree with each other? On what information or ideas is there a consensus or common agreement?

• On what information or ideas do your sources disagree with each other? What accounts for these differences?
• How do your sources address or contribute to your research question(s)?
• How would you objectively sum up what you know about the topic so far, based on your research?
• What is your stance, view, or position on the issue or problem, after reviewing your research? Which research findings contribute to your current position or stance?

• What do you still need to know? What new questions have come up as a result of your research?
In your Topic Exploration Statement, you must use evidence from at least 4 sources, cited in-text, to support, illustrate, and justify your findings. As you use evidence, remember that you are expected to blend and compare information and ideas among your sources, a practice of writing called synthesis (CHAPTER 19, pp. 633-637, of Writing: Ten Core Concepts,offers instruction on how to effectively synthesize information from multiple sources). In your statement, the sources from which your evidence comes should be discernible from each other, and your own writing voice should be discernible from those of the sources. ALL paraphrases and quotations, no matter how many you use, and ALL sources used, must be correctly cited following APA or MLA style guidelines (as specified by your instructor).

WRITING PROJECT 3: Annotated Bibliography

Assessment Specifics & Grading Rubrics

The following provides specific information for completing and submitting your project assignments – your purpose statementand first draft, due in Module9, and the cover letter and final draft, due in Module11.
FIRST DRAFT – Due in Module 9 (20 points)

1. Your Purpose Statement Specifics • Minimum 150 words (successful purpose statements are often longer)
• Following Step 2 in CHAPTER 3, analyze and specifically describe your Audience, Time, Place, and Purpose of your draft. Place your purpose statement at the beginning of your first draft, before the first page of your actual composition. For this assignment, your audience is a curious academic audience of peers
2. First Draft Specifics • APA or MLA manuscript style, as specified by your instructor
• Observation of the conventions of Standard English
• 1000 word minimum for first draft. This includes the Research Rationale, List of Source Citations and Annotations, and the Topic Exploration Statement. (The minimum 150 words for your purpose statement is not included in this count.)

Research Rationale

• 1-2 paragraphs
• Describe the issue, problem, or controversy you are researching
• Identify the relationship between your topic idea and either one of the CORE READINGS or the theme of the CORE READINGS selected by your instructor

• Explain the significance or relevance of your research question(s) to you and to others
• Describe what you hope to discover in your research, including 1-3 specific research questions
List of Source Citations with Annotations

• At least 3 relevant, up-to-date, and credible sources, representing different perspectives, responses, and/or information relevant to the research question(s); 2 or more are from the Ivy Tech Library subscription databases, 1 may be a CORE READING from the Core Readings/Focus Texts page

• Correct Works Cited (MLA) or References (APA) source citations (as assigned by your instructor), arranged alphabetically by author’s last name
• Source citations are double-spaced in 12-point Times New Roman font, using hanging indents
• An annotation for each source that includes discussion of all five criteria for each source (Writer, Publication, Summary, Stance, and Use), each part clearly labeled

• Each annotation should be 1paragraph, approximately 5-10 sentences long
Topic Exploration Statement
• 2-3 paragraphs
• Objective and accurate representation of the ideas and information examined
• Accurate and well-reasoned interpretation and synthesis of the information and ideas discovered about the issue or problem
• Use of at least 3 relevant and credible sources, cited in-text
• Use of evidence from sources (at least 6paraphrases and/or quotations), clearly discernible from each other and from the writer’s voice and cited using correct in-text citations

First Draft Rubric Criteria Points

Effective purpose statement, minimum 150 words 5
Complete draft—Research Rationale, List of Source Citations with Annotations (at least 3 sources), and Topic Exploration Statement, minimum 1000 words 10

Correct document format in APA or MLA style, as specified by your instructor. Use of at least 6paraphrases (key details or ideas rephrased in your own words) and/or quotations (words, phrases, or key sentences), cited using correct APA or MLA in-text citations. 5
TOTAL 20 points

 

FINAL DRAFT – Due in Module 11 (150 points)

1. Cover Letter Specifics • Minimum 200 words (successful cover letters are often longer)
• Address letter to your instructor.
• Answer at least 3 of the 5 questions below (where applicable). Provide brief, specific examples of the following in your cover letter:
o What feedback did you receive from your peers? How did you use this feedback to revise your draft? How do these revisions improve your draft?
o What feedback did you receive from other sources, such as your instructor or tutors? How did you use this feedback to revise your draft? How do these revisions improve your draft?
o What have you decided to revise in your draft, apart from feedback you received? Why? How do these revisions improve your draft?

o What problems or challenges did you encounter while writing or revising your draft? How did you solve them?
o What valuable lessons about writing effectively have you learned as a result of composing this project?
• Place the cover letter at the beginning of your final draft, before the first page of your actual composition; delete your purpose statement.
2. Final Draft Specifics • APA or MLA manuscript style, as specified by your instructor
• Observation of the conventions of Standard English
• 1250word minimum for final draft. This includes the Research Rationale, List of Source Citations and Annotations, and the Topic Exploration Statement. (The minimum 200 words for your cover letter is not included in this count.)

Research Rationale

• 1-2 paragraphs
• Describe the issue, problem, or controversy you are researching
• Identify the relationship between your topic idea and either one of the CORE READINGS or the theme of the CORE READINGS selected by your instructor
• Explain the significance or relevance of your research question(s) (to you and to others)
• Describe what you hope to discover in your research, including 1-3 specific research questions

List of Source Citations with Annotations

• At least 7 relevant, up-to-date, and credible sources, representing different perspectives, responses, and/or information relevant to the research question(s)
• At least 1 of the CORE READINGS from the Core Readings folder
• At least 5 sources from the Ivy Tech Library subscription databases
• A 7th source, which may be 1 additional database source; 1 additional CORE READING from your section’s Core Readings folder; OR a reputable source of some other type (open Web source, video, podcast, personal interview, documentary film, TV news story, etc.)
• Correct Works Cited (MLA) or References (APA) source citations (as assigned by your instructor), arranged alphabetically by author’s last name
• Double-spaced in 12-point Times New Roman font, using hanging indents
• An annotation for each source that includes discussion of all five points for each source (Writer, Publication, Summary, Stance, and Use), each part clearly labeled
• Each annotation should be 1paragraph, approximately 5-10 sentences long
Topic Exploration Statement
• 3-4 paragraphs
• Objective and accurate representation of the ideas and information examined
• Accurate and well-reasoned interpretation and synthesis of the information and ideas discovered about the issue or problem.
• Use of at least 4 relevant and credible sources, cited in-text
• Use of evidence from sources (at least 8paraphrases and/or quotations), clearly discernible from each other and from the writer’s voice and cited using correct in-text citations.

Final Draft Rubric

Criteria Description Points

Cover Letter Effective cover letter, describing peer feedback, explaining how peer feedback was implemented, and explaining how these changes improved the draft 10

Style Voice, tone, and stance are appropriate and effective for material, purpose, and audience. Style is clear, consistent, and cohesive, appealing appropriately to the intended audience. 10

Conventions Clear control of language conventions with few distracting typos or errors 10

Document style Correct document format in APA or MLA style, as specified by the instructor, including source citations alphabetized and double-spaced, with hanging indents; appropriate and consistent spacing for research rational, annotations, and topic exploration statement 10
RESEARCH RATIONALE
Description of Issue Introduces the issue, problem, or controversy explored and attempts to express its significance/importance. Relates issue to the core readings. 10
Research questions 1-3 specific, related research questions 5

LIST OF SOURCE CITATIONS WITH ANNOTATIONS

Number, quality, and type of sources 7 sources are relevant to the research question(s), credible, and up-to-date. Sources demonstrate a variety of perspectives and source types. At least 1 source is one of the CORE READINGS. At least 5 sources are from the Ivy Tech Library subscription databases. All sources are online sources. 15

Source Citations Sources correctly cited following MLA or APA style, as specified by the instructor; correct identification of author(s), source title, publication title/publisher, publication date or volume/issue, source URL or library database information, etc. 15
Annotations Each annotation accurately and critically evaluates source based on writer, publication, summary, stance, and use. 25

TOPIC EXPLORATION STATEMENT

Content Effectively, critically, and accurately addresses several of the following ideas related to the topic:
Effectively and accurately defines the issue, problem, or controversy explored; fairly and comprehensively explores importance/significance of problem or issue,competing perspectives that exist about it; examines points of difference and common ground among the sources; reviews and summarizes what is known about the topic based on source findings; examines how research findings address and contribute to research question(s);and/or reveals student’s informed position or stance on the topic, based on the evidence collected and analyzed. 15

Organization Organization is supported with helpful and effective transitions and with coherent arrangement. 5
Synthesis Coherently blends ideas and information among sources to convey and compare understandings, perspectives, and key ideas about the research topic. Sources are discernible from each other and the writer’s voice is discernible from those of the sources. 15

In-text Citations Use of at least4 relevant and credible sourcesincluded in the List of Source Citations. Use of at least 8paraphrases and/or quotations from sources. Evidence is effectively and accurately represented and cited using correct APA or MLA in-text citations. 5

TOTAL

NOTE: Proportional points may be deducted for final drafts that do not meet minimum word counts (200 words minimum for Cover Letter and 1250 words minimum for Annotated Bibliography). The Annotated Bibliography may be returned ungraded (or with a grade of zero) if the topic does not relate to this section’s core readings or if any part of the rationale or annotations is plagiarized. 150 points

 

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